About Antonio Pinheiro

Antonio Pinheiro received the B.E. degree in electrical engineering from the I.S.T. University of Lisbon, Portugal, in 1988, and the Ph.D. degree in Electronic Systems Engineering from University of Essex in 2002. Since 1988 he is a lecture at University da Beira Interior (UBI), Portugal. His current research interests are on image processing and computer vision domains, including Multimedia Quality, Multimedia Privacy, and also on Image Classification and Medical Image Analysis. He is the Communication chair and a Portuguese committee member of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 (JPEG). He has been Portuguese representative of the European COST Actions 292 and IC1003 -€“ Qualinet, and currently he is Portuguese representative of IC1206, DE-ID - De-identification for privacy protection in multimedia content and BM1304, MYO-MRI - Applications of MR imaging and spectroscopy techniques in neuromuscular disease.

JPEG Column: 96th JPEG Meeting

JPEG analyses the responses of the Calls for Proposals for the standardisation of the first codecs based on machine learning

The 96th JPEG meeting was held online from 25 to 29 July 2022. The meeting was one of the most productive in the recent history of JPEG with the analysis of the responses of two Calls for Proposals (CfP) for machine learning-based coding solutions, notably JPEG AI and JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding. The superior performance of the CfP responses compared to the state-of-the-art anchors leave little doubt about the future of coding technologies becoming dominated by machine learning based solutions with the expected consequences on the standardisation pathway. A new era of multimedia coding standardisation has begun.

Both activities had defined a verification model, and are pursuing a collaborative process that will select the best technologies for the definition of the new machine learning based standards.

The 96th JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

JPEG AI and JPEG Pleno Point Cloud, the two first machine learning based coding standards under development by JPEG.
  • JPEG AI response to the Call for Proposals;
  • JPEG Pleno Point Cloud begins collaborative standardisation phase;
  • JPEG Fake Media and NFT
  • JPEG Systems
  • JPEG Pleno Light Field
  • JPEG AIC
  • JPEG XS
  • JPEG 2000
  • JPEG DNA

The following summarises the major achievements of the 96th JPEG meeting.

JPEG AI

The 96th JPEG meeting represents an important milestone for the JPEG AI standardisation as it marks the beginning of the collaborative phase of this project. The main JPEG AI objective is to design a solution that offers significant compression efficiency improvement over coding standards in common use at equivalent subjective quality and an effective compressed domain processing for machine learning-based image processing and computer vision tasks. 

During the 96th JPEG meeting, several activities occurred, notably presentation of the eleven responses to all tracks of the Call for Proposals (CfP). Furthermore, discussions on the evaluation process used to assess submissions to the CfP took place, namely, subjective, objective and complexity assessment as well as the identification of device interoperability issues by cross-checking. For the standard reconstruction track, several contributions showed significantly higher compression efficiency in both subjective quality methodologies and objective metrics when compared to the best performing conventional image coding.

From the analysis and discussion of the results obtained, the most promising technologies were identified and a new JPEG AI verification model under consideration (VMuC) was approved. The VMuC corresponds to a combination of two proponents’ solutions (following the ‘one tool for one functionality’ principle), selected by consensus and considering the CfP decision criteria and factors. In addition, a set of JPEG AI Core Experiments were defined to obtain further improvements in both performance efficiency and complexity, notably the use of learning-based GAN training, alternative analysis/synthesis transforms and an evaluation study for the compressed-domain denoising as an image processing task. Several further activities were also discussed and defined, such as the design of a compressed domain image classification decoder VMuC, the creation of a large screen content dataset for the training of learning-based image coding solutions and the definition of a new and larger JPEG AI test set.

JPEG Pleno Point Cloud begins collaborative standardisation phase

JPEG Pleno integrates various modalities of plenoptic content under a single framework in a seamless manner. Efficient and powerful point cloud representation is a key feature in this vision. A point cloud refers to data representing positions of points in space, expressed in a given three-dimensional coordinate system, the so-called geometry. This geometrical data can be accompanied with per-point attributes of varying nature (e.g. color or reflectance). Such datasets are usually acquired with a 3D scanner, LIDAR or created using 3D design software and can subsequently be used to represent and render 3D surfaces. Combined with other types of data (like light field data), point clouds open a wide range of new opportunities, notably for immersive browsing and virtual reality applications.

Learning-based solutions are the state of the art for several computer vision tasks, such as those requiring high-level understanding of image semantics, e.g., image classification, face recognition and object segmentation, but also 3D processing tasks, e.g. visual enhancement and super-resolution. Recently, learning-based point cloud coding solutions have shown great promise to achieve competitive compression efficiency compared to available conventional point cloud coding solutions at equivalent subjective quality. Building on a history of successful and widely adopted coding standards, JPEG is well positioned to develop a standard for learning-based point cloud coding.

During its 94th meeting, the JPEG Committee released a Final Call for Proposals on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding. This call addressed learning-based coding technologies for point cloud content and associated attributes with emphasis on both human visualization and decompressed/reconstructed domain 3D processing and computer vision with competitive compression efficiency compared to point cloud coding standards in common use, with the goal of supporting a royalty-free baseline. During its 96th meeting, the JPEG Committee evaluated 5 codecs submitted in response to this Call. Following a comprehensive evaluation process, the JPEG Committee selected one of the proposals to form the basis of a future standard and initialised a sub-division to form Part 6 of ISO/IEC 21794. The selected submission was a learning-based approach to point cloud coding that met the requirements of the Call and showed competitive performance, both in terms of coding geometry and color, against existing solutions.

JPEG Fake Media and NFT

At the 96th JPEG meeting, 6 pre-registrations to the Final Call for Proposals (CfP) on JPEG Fake Media were received. The scope of JPEG Fake Media is the creation of a standard that can facilitate the secure and reliable annotation of media assets creation and modifications. The standard shall address use cases that are in good faith as well as those with malicious intent. The CfP welcomes contributions that address at least one of the extensive list of requirements specified in the associated “Use Cases and Requirements for JPEG Fake Media” document. Proponents who have not yet made a pre-registration are still welcome to submit their final proposal before 19 October 2022. Full details about the timeline, submission requirements and evaluation processes are documented in the CfP available on jpeg.org.

In parallel with the work on Fake Media, JPEG explores use cases and requirements related to Non Fungible Tokens (NFTs). Although the use cases between both topics are different, there is a significant overlap in terms of requirements and relevant solutions. The presentations and video recording of the joint 5th JPEG NFT and Fake Media Workshop that took place prior to the 96th meeting are available on the JPEG website. In addition, a new version of the “Use Cases and Requirements for JPEG NFT” was produced and made publicly available for review and feedback.

JPEG Systems

During the 96th JPEG Meeting the IS texts for both JLINK (ISO/IEC 19566-7) and JPEG Snack (ISO/IEC 19566-8) were prepared and submitted for final publication. JLINK specifies a format to store multiple images inside of JPEG files and supports interactive navigation between them. JLINK addresses use cases such as virtual museum tours, real estate visits, hotspot zoom into other images and many others. JPEG Snack on the other hand enables self-running multimedia experiences such as animated image sequences and moving image overlays. Both standards are based on the JPEG Universal Metadata Box Format (JUMBF, ISO/IEC 19566-5) for which a second edition is in progress. This second edition adds extensions to native support of CBOR (Concise Binary Object Representation) and to attach private fields to the JUMBF Description Box.

JPEG Pleno Light Field

During its 96th meeting, the JPEG Committee released the “JPEG Pleno Second Draft Call for Contributions on Light Field Subjective Quality Assessment”, to collect new procedures and best practices for light field subjective quality evaluation methodologies to assess artefacts induced by coding algorithms. All contributions, which can be test procedures, datasets, and any additional information, will be considered to develop the standard by consensus among JPEG experts following a collaborative process approach. The Final Call for Contributions will be issued at the 97th JPEG meeting. The deadline for submission of contributions is 1 April 2023.

A JPEG Pleno Light Field AhG has also started the preparation of a first workshop on Subjective Light Field Quality Assessment and a second workshop on Learning-based Light field Coding, to exchange experiences, to present technological advances and research results on light field subjective quality assessment and to present technological advances and research results on learning-based coding solutions for light field data, respectively.

JPEG AIC

During its 96th meeting, a Second Draft Call for Contributions on Subjective Image Quality Assessment was issued. The final Call for Contributions is now planned to be issued at the 97th JPEG meeting. The standardization process will be collaborative from the very beginning, i.e. all submissions will be considered in developing the next extension of the JPEG AIC standard. The deadline for submissions has been extended to 1 April 2023 at 23:59 UTC. Multiple types of contributions are accepted, namely subjective assessment methods including supporting evidence and detailed description, test material, interchange format, software implementation, criteria and protocols for evaluation, additional relevant use cases and requirements, and any relevant evidence or literature. A dataset of sample images with the compression-based distortions in the target quality range is planned to be prepared for the 97th JPEG meeting.

JPEG XS

With the 2nd edition of JPEG XS now in place, the JPEG Committee continues with the development of a 3rd edition of JPEG XS Part 1 (Core coding system) and Part 2 (Profiles and buffer models). These editions will address new use cases and requirements for JPEG XS by defining additional coding tools to further improve the coding efficiency, while keeping the low-latency and low-complexity core aspects of JPEG XS. The primary goal of the 3rd edition is to deliver the same image quality as the 2nd edition, but for specific content such as screen contents with half of the required bandwidth. In this respect, experiments have indicated that it is possible to increase the quality in static regions of an image sequence by more than 10dB when compared to the 2nd edition. Based on the input contributions, a first working draft for 21122-1 has been created, along with the necessary core experiments for further evaluation and verification.

In addition, JPEG has finalized the work on the amendment for Part 2 2nd edition that defines a new High 4:2:0 profile and the new sublevel Sublev4bpp. This amendment is now ready for publication by ISO. In the context of Part 4 (Conformance testing) and Part 5 (Reference software), the JPEG Committee decided to make both parts publicly available.

Finally, the JPEG Committee decided to create a series of public documents, called the “JPEG XS in-depth series” that will explain various features and applications of JPEG XS to a broad audience. The first document in this series explains the advantages of using JPEG XS for raw image compression and will be published soon on jpeg.org.

JPEG 2000

The JPEG Committee published a case study that compares HT2K, ProRes and JPEG 2000 Part 1 when processing motion picture content with widely available commercial software tools running on notebook computers, available at https://ds.jpeg.org/documents/jpeg2000/wg1n100269-096-COM-JPEG_Case_Study_HTJ2K_performance_on_laptop_desktop_PCs.pdf

JPEG 2000 is widely used in the media and entertainment industry for Digital Cinema distribution, studio video masters and broadcast contribution links. High Throughput JPEG 2000 (HTJ2K or JPEG 2000 Part 15) is an update to JPEG 2000 that provides an order of magnitude speed up over legacy JPEG 2000 Part 1.

JPEG DNA

The JPEG Committee has continued its exploration of the coding of images in quaternary representations, as it is particularly suitable for DNA storage applications. The scope of JPEG DNA is the creation of a standard for efficient coding of images that considers biochemical constraints and offers robustness to noise introduced by the different stages of the storage process that is based on DNA synthetic polymers. During the 96th JPEG meeting, a new version of the overview document on Use Cases and Requirements for DNA-based Media Storage was issued and has been made publicly available. The JPEG Committee also updated two additional documents: the JPEG DNA Benchmark Codec and the JPEG DNA Common Test Conditions in order to allow for concrete exploration experiments to take place. This will allow further validation and extension of the JPEG DNA benchmark codec to simulate an end-to-end image storage pipeline using DNA and in particular include biochemical noise simulation which is an essential element in practical implementations. A new branch has been created in the JPEG Gitlab that now contains two anchors and two JPEG DNA benchmark codecs.

Final Quote

“After successful calls for contributions, the JPEG Committee sets precedence by launching the collaborative phase of two learning based visual information coding standards, hence announcing the start of a new era in coding technologies relying on AI.” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

Upcoming JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No 97, will be held online from 24-28 October 2022.
  • No 98, will be in Sydney, Australia from 14-20 January 2022

JPEG Column: 95th JPEG Meeting

JPEG issues a call for proposals for JPEG Fake Media

The 95th JPEG meeting was held online from 25 to 29 April 2022. A Call for Proposals (CfP) was issued for JPEG Fake Media that aims at a standardisation framework for secure annotation of modifications in media assets. With this new initiative, JPEG endeavours to provide standardised means for the identification of the provenance of media assets that include imaging information. Assuring the provenance of the coded information is essential considering the current trends and possibilities on multimedia technology.

Fake Media standardisation aims the identification of image provenance.

This new initiative complements the ongoing standardisation of machine learning based codecs for images and point clouds. Both are expected to revolutionise the state of the art of coding standards, leading to compression rates beyond the current state of the art.

The 95th JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

  • JPEG Fake Media issues a Call for Proposals;
  • JPEG AI
  • JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding;
  • JPEG Pleno Light Fields quality assessment;
  • JPEG AIC near perceptual lossless quality assessment;
  • JPEG NFT exploration;
  • JPEG DNA explorations
  • JPEG XS 2nd edition published;
  • JPEG XL 2nd edition.

The following summarises the major achievements of the 95th JPEG meeting.

JPEG Fake Media

At its 95th JPEG meeting, the committee issued a Final Call for Proposals (CfP) on JPEG Fake Media. The scope of JPEG Fake Media is the creation of a standard that can facilitate the secure and reliable annotation of media asset creation and modifications. The standard shall address use cases that are in good faith as well as those with malicious intent. The call for proposals welcomes contributions that address at least one of the extensive list of requirements specified in the associated “Use Cases and Requirements for JPEG Fake Media” document. Proponents are highly encouraged to express their interest in submission of a proposal before 20 July 2022 and submit their final proposal before 19 October 2022. Full details about the timeline, submission requirements and evaluation processes are documented in the CfP available on jpeg.org.

JPEG AI

Following the JPEG AI joint ISO/IEC/ITU-T Call for Proposals issued after the 94th JPEG committee meeting, 14 registrations were received among which 12 codecs were submitted for the standard reconstruction task. For computer vision and image processing tasks, several teams have submitted compressed domain decoders, notably 6 for image classification. Prior to the 95th JPEG meeting, the work was focused on the management of the Call for Proposals submissions and the creation of the test sets and the generation of anchors for standard reconstruction, image processing and computer vision tasks. Moreover, a dry run of the subjective evaluation of the JPEG AI anchors was performed with expert subjects and the results were analysed during this meeting, followed by additions and corrections to the JPEG AI Common Training and Test Conditions and the definition of several recommendations for the evaluation of the proposals, notably, the anchors, images and bitrates selection. A procedure for cross-check evaluation was also discussed and approved. The work will now focus on the evaluation of the Call for Proposals submissions, which is expected to be finalized at the 96th JPEG meeting.

JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding

JPEG Pleno is working towards the integration of various modalities of plenoptic content under a single and seamless framework. Efficient and powerful point cloud representation is a key feature within this vision. Point cloud data supports a wide range of applications for human and machine consumption including metaverse, autonomous driving, computer-aided manufacturing, entertainment, cultural heritage preservation, scientific research and advanced sensing and analysis. During the 95th JPEG meeting, the JPEG Committee reviewed the responses to the Final Call for Proposals on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding. Four responses have been received from three different institutions. At the upcoming 96th JPEG meeting, the responses to the Call for Proposals will be evaluated with a subjective quality evaluation and objective metric calculations.

JPEG Pleno Light Field

The JPEG Pleno standard tools provide a framework for coding new imaging modalities derived from representations inspired by the plenoptic function. The image modalities addressed by the current standardization activities are light field, holography, and point clouds, where these image modalities describe different sampled representations of the plenoptic function. Therefore, to properly assess the quality of these plenoptic modalities, specific subjective and objective quality assessment methods need to be designed.

In this context, JPEG has launched a new standardisation effort known as JPEG Pleno Quality Assessment. It aims at providing a quality assessment standard, defining a framework that includes subjective quality assessment protocols and objective quality assessment procedures for lossy decoded data of plenoptic modalities for multiple use cases and requirements. The first phase of this effort will address the light field modality.

To assist this task, JPEG has issued the “JPEG Pleno Draft Call for Contributions on Light Field Subjective Quality Assessment”, to collect new procedures and best practices with regard to light field subjective quality assessment methodologies to assess artefacts induced by coding algorithms. All contributions, which can be test procedures, datasets, and any additional information, will be considered to develop the standard by consensus among the JPEG experts following a collaborative process approach.

The Final Call for Contributions will be issued at the 96th JPEG meeting. The deadline for submission of contributions is 18 December 2022.

JPEG AIC

During the 95th JPEG Meeting, the committee released the Draft Call for Contributions on Subjective Image Quality Assessment.

The new JPEG AIC standard will be developed considering all the submissions to the Call for Contributions in a collaborative process. The deadline for the submission is set for 14 October 2022. Multiple types of contributions are accepted, notably subjective assessment methods including supporting evidence and detailed description, test material, interchange format, software implementation, criteria and protocols for evaluation, additional relevant use cases and requirements, and any relevant evidence or literature.

The JPEG AIC committee has also started the preparation of a workshop on subjective assessment methods for the investigated quality range, which will be held at the end of June. The workshop targets obtaining different views on the problem, and will include both internal and external speakers, as well as a Q&A panel. Experts in the field of quality assessment and stakeholders interested in the use cases are invited.

JPEG NFT

After the joint JPEG NFT and Fake Media workshops it became evident that even though the use cases between both topics are different, there is a significant overlap in terms of requirements and relevant solutions. For that reason, it was decided to create a single AHG that covers both JPEG NFT and JPEG Fake Media explorations. The newly established AHG JPEG Fake Media and NFT will use the JPEG Fake Media mailing list.

JPEG DNA

The JPEG Committee has continued its exploration of the coding of images in quaternary representations, as it is particularly suitable for DNA storage applications. The scope of JPEG DNA is the creation of a standard for efficient coding of images that considers biochemical constraints and offers robustness to noise introduced by the different stages of the storage process that is based on DNA synthetic polymers. A new version of the overview document on DNA-based Media Storage: State-of-the-Art, Challenges, Use Cases and Requirements was issued and has been made publicly available. It was decided to continue this exploration by validating and extending the JPEG DNA benchmark codec to simulate an end-to-end image storage pipeline using DNA for future exploration experiments including biochemical noise simulation. During the 95th JPEG meeting, a new specific document describing the Use Cases and Requirements for DNA-based Media Storage was created which is made publicly available. A timeline for the standardization process was also defined. Interested parties are invited to consider joining the effort by registering to the JPEG DNA AHG mailing list.

JPEG XS

The JPEG Committee is pleased to announce that the 2nd editions of Part 1 (Core coding system), Part 2 (Profiles and buffer models), and Part 3 (Transport and container formats) were published in March 2022. Furthermore, the committee finalized the work on Part 4 (Conformance testing) and Part 5 (Reference software), which are now entering the final phase for publication. With these last two parts, the committee’s work on the 2nd edition of the JPEG XS standards comes to an end, allowing to shift the focus to further improve the standard. Meanwhile, in response to the latest Use Cases and Requirements for JPEG XS v3.1, the committee received a number of technology proposals from Fraunhofer and intoPIX that focus on improving the compression performance for desktop content sequences. The proposals will now be evaluated and thoroughly tested and will form the foundation of the work towards a 3rd edition of the JPEG XS suite of standards. The primary goal of the 3rd edition is to deliver the same image quality as the 2nd edition, but with half of the required bandwidth.

JPEG XL

The second edition of JPEG XL Part 1 (Core coding system), with an improved numerical stability of the edge-preserving filter and numerous editorial improvements, has proceeded to the CD stage. Work on a second edition of Part 2 (File format) was initiated. Hardware coding was also further investigated. Preliminary software support has been implemented in major web browsers, image viewing and editing software, including popular tools such as FFmpeg, ImageMagick, libvips, GIMP, GDK and Qt. JPEG XL is now ready for wide-scale adoption.

Final Quote

“Recent development on creation and modification of visual information call for development of tools that can help protecting the authenticity and integrity of media assets. JPEG Fake Media is a standardised framework to deal with imaging provenance.” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

Upcoming JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No. 96, will be held online during 25-29 July 2022.

JPEG Column: 94th JPEG Meeting

IEC, ISO and ITU issue a call for proposals for joint standardization of image coding based on machine learning

The 94th JPEG meeting was held online from 17 to 21 January 2022. A major milestone has been reached at this meeting with the release of the final call for proposals under the JPEG AI project. This standard aims at the joint standardization of the first image coding standard based on machine learning by the IEC, ISO and ITU, offering a single stream, compact compressed domain representation, targeting both human visualization with significant compression efficiency improvement over image coding standards in common use at equivalent subjective quality and effective performance for image processing and computer vision tasks.

The JPEG AI call for proposals was issued in parallel with a call for proposals for point cloud coding based on machine learning. The latter will be conducted in parallel with JPEG AI standardization.

The 94th JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

  • JPEG AI Call for Proposals;
  • JPEG JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Call for Proposals;
  • JPEG Pleno Light Fields quality assessment;
  • JPEG AIC near perceptual lossless quality assessment;
  • JPEG Systems;
  • JPEG Fake Media draft Call for Proposals;
  • JPEG NFT exploration;
  • JPEG XS;
  • JPEG XL
  • JPEG DNA explorations.

The following provides an overview of the major achievements carried out during the 94th JPEG meeting.

JPEG AI

JPEG AI targets a wide range of applications such as cloud storage, visual surveillance, autonomous vehicles and devices, image collection storage and management, live monitoring of visual data and media distribution. The main objective is to design a coding solution that offers significant compression efficiency improvement over coding standards in common use at equivalent subjective quality and an effective compressed domain processing for machine learning-based image processing and computer vision tasks. Other key requirements include hardware/software implementation-friendly encoding and decoding, support for 8- and 10-bit depth, efficient coding of images with text and graphics and progressive decoding.

During the 94th JPEG meeting, several activities toward a JPEG AI learning-based coding standard have occurred, notably the release of the Final Call for Proposals for JPEG AI, consolidated with the definition of the Use Cases and Requirements and the Common Training and Test Conditions to assure a fair and complete evaluation of the future proposals.

The final JPEG AI Call for Proposals marks an important milestone being the first time that contributions are solicited towards a learning-based image coding solution. The JPEG AI proposals’ registration deadline is 25 February 2022. There are three main phases for proponents to submit materials, namely, on 10th March for the proposed decoder implementation with some fixed coding model, on 2nd May for the submission of proposals’ bitstreams and decoded images and/or labels for the test datasets, and on 18th July, for the submission of source code for the encoder, decoder, training procedure and the proposal description. The presentation and discussion of the JPEG AI proposals will occur during the 96th JPEG meeting. JPEG AI is a joint standardization project between IEC, ISO and ITU.

JPEG AI framework

JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding

JPEG Pleno is working towards the integration of various modalities of plenoptic content under a single and seamless framework. Efficient and powerful point cloud representation is a key feature of this vision. Point cloud data supports a wide range of applications for human and machine consumption including metaverse, autonomous driving, computer-aided manufacturing, entertainment, cultural heritage preservation, scientific research and advanced sensing and analysis. During the 94th JPEG meeting, the JPEG Committee released a final Call for Proposals on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding. This call addresses learning-based coding technologies for point cloud content and associated attributes with emphasis on both human visualization and decompressed/reconstructed domain 3D processing and computer vision with competitive compression efficiency compared to point cloud coding standards in common use, with the goal of supporting a royalty-free baseline. This Call was released in conjunction with new releases of the JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Use Cases and Requirements and the JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Common Training and Test Conditions. Interested parties are invited to register for this Call by the deadline of the 31st of March 2022.

JPEG Pleno Light Field

Besides defining coding standards, JPEG Pleno is planning for the creation of quality assessment standards, i.e. defining a framework including subjective quality assessment protocols and objective quality assessment measures for lossy decoded data of plenoptic modalities in the context of multiple use cases. The first phase of this effort will address the light field modality and should build on the light field quality assessment tools developed by JPEG in recent years. Future activities will focus on holographic and point cloud modalities, for both of which also coding related standardization efforts have been initiated.

JPEG AIC

During the 94th JPEG Meeting, the first version of the use cases and requirements document was released under the Image Quality Assessment activity. The standardization process was also defined, and the process will be carried out in two phases: during Stage I, a subjective methodology for the assessment of images with visual quality in the range from high quality to near-visually lossless will be standardized, following a collaborative process; successively, in Stage II, an objective image quality metric will be standardized, by means of a competitive process. A tentative timeline has also been planned with a call for contributions for subjective quality assessment methodologies to be released in July 2022, and a call for proposals for an objective quality metric planned in July 2023.

JPEG Systems

JPEG Systems produced the FDIS text for JLINK (ISO/IEC 19566-7), which allows the storage of multiple images inside JPEG files and the interactive navigation between them. This enables features like virtual museum tours, real estate visits, hotspot zoom into other images and many others. For JPEG Snack, the Committee produced the DIS text of ISO/IEC 19566-8, which allows storing multiple images for self-running multimedia experiences like animated image sequences and moving image overlays. Both texts are submitted for respective balloting. For JUMBF (ISO/IEC 19566-5, JPEG Universal Metadata Box Format), a second edition was initiated which combines the first edition and two amendments. Actual extensions are the support of CBOR (Concise Binary Object Representation) and private content types. In addition, JPEG Systems started an activity on a technical report for JPEG extensions mechanisms to facilitate forwards and backwards compatibility under ISO/IEC 19566-9. This technical report gives guidelines for the design of future JPEG standards and summarizes existing design mechanisms.

JPEG Fake Media

At its 94th meeting, the JPEG Committee released a Draft Call for Proposals for JPEG Fake Media and associated Use Cases and Requirements on JPEG Fake Media. These documents are the result of the work performed by the JPEG Fake Media exploration. The scope of JPEG Fake Media is the creation of a standard that can facilitate secure and reliable annotation of media asset creation and modifications. The standard shall address use cases that are both in good faith and those with malicious intent. The Committee targets the following timeline for the next steps in the standardization process:

  • April 2022: issue Final Call for Proposals
  • October 2022: evaluation of proposals
  • January 2023: first Working Draft (WD)
  • January 2024: Draft International Standard (DIS)
  • October 2024: International Standard (IS)

The JPEG Committee welcomes feedback on the JPEG Fake Media documents and invites interested experts to join the JPEG Fake Media AhG mailing list to get involved in this standardization activity.

JPEG NFT

The Ad hoc Group (AhG) on NFT resumed its exploratory work on the role of JPEG in the NFT ecosystem during the 94th JPEG meeting. Three use cases and four essential requirements were selected. The use cases include the usage of NFT for JPEG-based digital art, NFT for collectable JPEGs, and NFT for JPEG micro-licensing. The following categories of critical requirements are under consideration: metadata descriptions, metadata embedding and referencing; authentication and integrity; and the format for registering media assets. As a result, the JPEG Committee published an output document titled JPEG NFT Use Cases and Requirements. Additionally, the third JPEG NFT and Fake Media Workshop proceedings were published, and arrangements were made to hold another combined workshop between the JPEG NFT and JPEG Fake Media groups.

JPEG XS

At the 94th JPEG meeting a new revision of the Use Cases and Requirements for JPEG XS document was produced, as version 3.1, to clarify and improve the requirements of a frame buffer. In addition, the JPEG Committee reports that the second editions of Part 1 (Core coding system), Part 2 (Profiles and buffer models), and Part 3 (Transport and container formats) have been approved and are now scheduled for publication as International Standards. Lastly, the DAM text for Amendment 1 to JPEG XS Part 2, which contains the additional High420.12 profile and a new sublevel at 4 bpp, is ready and will be sent to final balloting for approval.

JPEG XL

JPEG XL Part 4 (Reference software) has proceeded to the FDIS stage. Work continued on the second edition of Part 1 (Core coding system). Core experiments were defined to investigate the numerical stability of the edge-preserving filter and fixed-point implementations. Both Part 1 (core coding system) and Part 2 (file format) are now published as IS, and preliminary support has been implemented in major web browsers, image viewing and editing software. Consequently, JPEG XL is now ready for wide-scale adoption.

JPEG DNA

The JPEG Committee has continued its exploration of the coding of images in quaternary representations, as is particularly suitable for DNA storage. The scope of JPEG DNA is the creation of a standard for efficient coding of images that considers biochemical constraints and offers robustness to noise introduced by the different stages of the storage process that is based on DNA synthetic polymers. A new version of the JPEG DNA overview document was issued and is now publicly available. It was decided to continue this exploration by validating and extending the JPEG DNA experimentation software to simulate an end-to-end image storage pipeline using DNA for future exploration experiments including biochemical noise simulation. During the 94th JPEG meeting, the JPEG DNA committee initiate a new document describing the Common Test Conditions that should be used to evaluate different aspects of image coding for storage on DNA support. It was also decided to prepare an outreach video to explain DNA coding as well as organize the 6th workshop on JPEG DNA with emphasis on the biochemical process noise simulators. Interested parties are invited to consider joining the effort by registering on the mailing list of JPEG DNA AhG.

Final Quote

“JPEG marks a historical milestone with the parallel release of two calls for proposals for learning based coding of images and point clouds,” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

Upcoming JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No 95, will be held online during 25-29 April 2022

JPEG Column: 93rd JPEG Meeting

JPEG Committee launches a Call for Proposals on Learning based Point Cloud Coding

The 93rd JPEG meeting was held online from 18 to 22 October 2021. The JPEG Committee continued its work on the development of new standardised solutions for the representation of visual information. Notably, the JPEG Committee has decided to release a new call for proposals on point cloud coding based on machine learning technologies that targets both compression efficiency and effective performance for 3D processing as well as machine and computer vision tasks. This activity will be conducted in parallel with JPEG AI standardization. Furthermore, it was also decided to pursue the development of a new standard in the context of the exploration on JPEG Fake News activity.

JPEG coding framework based in machine learning. The latent representation generated by the AI based coding mechanism can be used for human visualisation, data processing and computer vision tasks.

Considering the response to the Call for Proposals on JPEG Pleno Holography, a first standard for compression of digital holograms has entered its collaborative phase. The response to the call for proposals identified a reliable coding solution for this type of visual information that overcomes the limitations of the state of the art coding solutions for holographic data compression.

The 93rd JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

  • JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding draft of the Call for Proposals;
  • JPEG JPEG Pleno Holography;
  • JPEG AI drafts of the Call for Proposals and Common Training and Test Conditions;
  • JPEG Fake Media defines the standardisation timeline;
  • JPEG NFT collects use cases;
  • JPEG AIC explores standardisation of near-visually lossless quality models;
  • JPEG XS new profiles and sub-levels;
  • JPEG XL explores fixed point implementations;
  • JPEG DNA considers image quaternary representations suitable for DNA storage.

The following provides an overview of the major achievements of the 93rd JPEG meeting.

JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding

JPEG Pleno is working towards the integration of various modalities of plenoptic content under a single and seamless framework. Efficient and powerful point cloud representation is a key feature within this vision. Point cloud data supports a wide range of applications for human and machine consumption including autonomous driving, computer-aided manufacturing, entertainment, cultural heritage preservation, scientific research and advanced sensing and analysis. During the 93rd JPEG meeting, the JPEG Committee released a Draft Call for Proposals on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding. This call addresses learning-based coding technologies for point cloud content and associated attributes with emphasis on both human visualization and decompressed/reconstructed domain 3D processing and computer vision with competitive compression efficiency compared to point cloud coding standards in common use, with the goal of supporting a royalty-free baseline. A Final Call for Proposals on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding is planned to be released in January 2022.

JPEG Pleno Holography

At its 93rd JPEG meeting, the committee reviewed the response to the Call for Proposals on JPEG Pleno Holography, which is the first standardization effort aspiring to a versatile solution for efficient compression of holograms for a wide range of applications such as holographic microscopy, tomography, interferometry, printing and display and their associated hologram types. The coding technology selected provides excellent rate-distortion performance for lossy coding, in addition, to supporting lossless coding and random access via a space-frequency segmentation approach. The selected technology will serve as a baseline for the standard specification to be developed. This final specification is planned to be published as an international standard in early 2024.

JPEG AI

JPEG AI scope is the creation of a learning-based image coding standard offering a single-stream, compact compressed domain representation, targeting both human visualization with significant compression efficiency improvement over image coding standards in common use at equivalent subjective quality, and effective performance for image processing and computer vision tasks.

During the 93rd JPEG meeting, the JPEG AI project activities were focused on the analysis of the results of the exploration studies as well as refinements and improvements on common training and test conditions, especially the performance assessment of the image classification and super-resolution tasks. A related topic that received much attention was device interoperability which was thoroughly analyzed and discussed. Also, the JPEG AI Third Draft Call for Proposals is now available with improvements on evaluation conditions and proposal composition and requirements. A final call for proposals is expected to be issued at the 94th meeting (17-21 January 2022) and to produce a first Working Draft by October 2022.

JPEG Fake Media

The scope of the JPEG Fake Media exploration is to assess standardization needs to facilitate secure and reliable annotation of media asset creation and modifications in good-faith usage scenarios as well as in those with malicious intent. At the 93rd meeting, the JPEG Committee released an updated version of the “JPEG Fake Media Context, Use Cases and Requirements” document. The new version includes an extended set of definitions and a new section related to threat vectors. In addition, the requirements have been substantially enhanced, in particular those related to media asset authenticity and integrity. Given the progress of the exploration, an initial timeline for the standardization process was proposed:

  • April 2022: Issue call for proposals
  • October 2022: Submission of proposals
  • January 2023: Start standardization process
  • January 2024: Draft International Standard (DIS)
  • October 2024: International Standard (IS)

The JPEG Committee welcomes feedback on the working document and invites interested experts to join the JPEG Fake Media AhG mailing list to get involved in this standardization activity.

JPEG NFT

Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) have recently attracted substantial interest. Numerous digital assets associated with NFTs are encoded in existing JPEG formats or can be represented in JPEG-developed current and future representations. Additionally, several trusts and security concerns have been raised about NFTs and the underlying digital assets. The JPEG Committee has established the JPEG NFT exploration initiative to better understand user requirements for media formats. JPEG NFT’s mission is to provide effective specifications that enable various applications that rely on NFTs applied to media assets. The standard shall be secure, trustworthy, and environmentally friendly, enabling an interoperable ecosystem based on NFT within or across applications. The group seeks to engage stakeholders from various backgrounds, including technical, legal, creative, and end-user communities, to develop use cases and requirements. On October 12th, 2021, a second JPEG NFT Workshop was organized in this context. The presentations and video footage from the workshop are now available on the JPEG website. In January 2022, a third workshop will focus on commonalities with the JPEG Fake Media exploration. JPEG encourages interested parties to visit its website frequently for the most up-to-date information and to subscribe to the JPEG NFT Ad Hoc Group’s (AhG) mailing list to participate in this effort.

JPEG AIC

During the 93rd JPEG Meeting, work was initiated on the first draft of a document on use cases and requirements regarding Assessment of Image Coding. The scope of AIC activities was defined to target standards or best practices with respect to subjective and objective image quality assessment methodologies that target a range from high quality to near-visually lossless quality. This is a range of visual qualities where artefacts are not noticeable by an average non-expert viewer without presenting an original reference image but are detectable by a flicker test.

JPEG XS

The JPEG Committee created an updated document “Use Cases and Requirements for JPEG XS V3.0”. It describes new use cases and refines the requirements to allow improving the coding efficiency and to provide additional functionality w.r.t. HDR content, random access and more. In addition, the JPEG XS second editions of Part 1 (Core coding system), Part 2 (Profiles and buffer models), and Part 3 (Transport and container formats) went to the final ballot before ISO publication stage. In the meantime, the Committee continued working on the second editions of Part 4 (Conformance Testing) and Part 5 (Reference Software), which are now ready as Draft International Standards. In addition, the decision was made to create an amendment to Part 2 that will add a High420.12 profile and a new sublevel at 4 bpp, to swiftly address market demands.

JPEG XL

Part 3 (Conformance testing) has proceeded to DIS stage. Core experiments were discussed to investigate hardware coding, in particular fixed-point implementations, and will be continued. Work on a second edition of Part 1 (Core coding system) was initiated. With preliminary support in major web browsers, image viewing and editing software, JPEG XL is ready for wide-scale adoption.

JPEG DNA

The JPEG Committee has continued its exploration of the coding of images in quaternary representations, as is particularly suitable for DNA storage. An important progress in this activity is the implementation of experimentation software to simulate the coding/decoding of images in quaternary code. A thorough explanation of the package has been created, and a wiki for documentation and a link to the code can be found here. A successful fifth workshop on JPEG DNA was held prior to the 93rd JPEG meeting and a new version of the JPEG DNA overview document was issued and is now publicly available. It was decided to continue this exploration by validating and extending the JPEG DNA experimentation software to simulate an end-to-end image storage pipeline using DNA for future exploration experiments, as well as improving the JPEG DNA overview document. Interested parties are invited to consider joining the effort by registering to the mailing list of JPEG DNA.

Final Quote

“Aware of the importance of timely standards in AI-powered imaging applications, the JPEG Committee is moving forward with two concurrent calls for proposals addressing both image and point cloud coding based on machine learning”, said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

Upcoming JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

No 94, to be held online during 17-21 January 2022.

JPEG Column: 92nd JPEG Meeting

JPEG Committee explores NFT standardisation needs

The 92nd JPEG meeting was held online from 7 to 13 July 2021. This meeting has consolidated JPEG’s exploration on standardisation needs related to Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs). Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of NFTs in many applications, notably in the trade of digital art and collectables.

Other notable results of the 92nd JPEG meeting have been the release of an update to the Call for Proposals on JPEG Pleno Holography and an initiative to revisit opportunities for standardisation of image quality assessment methodologies and metrics.

The 92nd JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

  • JPEG NFT exploration;
  • JPEG Fake Media defines context, use cases and requirements;
  • JPEG Pleno Holography call for proposals;
  • JPEG AI prepare Call for Proposals;
  • JPEG AIC explores new quality models;
  • JPEG Systems;
  • JPEG XS;
  • JPEG XL;
  • JPEG DNA.

The following provides an overview of the major achievements of the 92nd JPEG meeting.

JPEG NFT exploration

Recently, Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) have garnered considerable interest. Numerous digital assets linked with NFTs are either encoded in existing JPEG formats or can be represented in JPEG-developed current and forthcoming representations. Additionally, various trust and security concerns have been raised about NFTs and the digital assets on which they rely. To better understand user requirements for media formats, the JPEG Committee has launched the JPEG NFT exploration initiative. The mission of JPEG NFT is to provide effective specifications that enable various applications that rely on NFTs applied to media assets. A JPEG NFT standard shall be secure, trustworthy, and eco-friendly, enabling an interoperable ecosystem based on NFTs within or across applications. The committee strives to engage stakeholders from diverse backgrounds, including the technical, legal, artistic, and end-user communities, to establish use cases and requirements. In this context, the first JPEG NFT Workshop was held on July 1st, 2021. The workshop’s presentations and video footage are now accessible on the JPEG website, and a second workshop will be held in the near future. JPEG encourages interested parties to frequently visit its website for the most up-to-date information and to subscribe to the mailing list of the JPEG NFT Ad Hoc Group (AhG) in order to participate in this effort.

JPEG Fake Media

The scope of the JPEG Fake Media exploration is to assess standardisation needs to facilitate secure and reliable annotation of media asset creation and modifications in good-faith usage scenarios as well as in those with malicious intent. At the 92nd meeting, the JPEG Committee released an updated version of the “JPEG Fake Media Context, Use Cases and Requirements” document. This new version includes an improved and extended set of requirements covering three main categories: media creation and modification descriptions, metadata embedding & referencing and authenticity verification. In addition, the document contains several improvements including an extended set of definitions covering key terminologies. The JPEG Committee welcomes feedback to the document and invites interested experts to join the JPEG Fake Media AhG mailing list to get involved in the discussion.

JPEG Pleno

Currently, a Call for Proposals is open for JPEG Pleno Holography, which is the first standardisation effort aspiring to provide a versatile solution for efficient compression of holograms for a wide range of applications such as holographic microscopy, tomography, interferometry, printing, and display, and their associated hologram types. Key desired functionalities include support for both lossy and lossless coding, scalability, random access, and integration within the JPEG Pleno system architecture, with the goal of supporting a royalty-free baseline. In support of this Call for Proposals, a Common Test Conditions document and accompanying software have been released, enabling elaborate stress testing from the rate-distortion, functionality and visual rendering quality perspectives. For the latter, numerical reconstruction software has been released enabling viewport rendering from holographic data. References to software and documentation can be found on the JPEG website.

JPEG Pleno Point Cloud continues to progress towards a Call for Proposals on learning-based point cloud coding solutions with the release at the 92nd JPEG meeting of an updated Use Cases and Requirements document. This document details how the JPEG Committee envisions learning-based point cloud coding solutions meeting the requirements of rapidly emerging use cases in this field. This document continues the focus on solutions supporting scalability and random access while detailing new requirements for 3D processing and computer vision tasks performed in the compressed domain to support emerging applications such as autonomous driving and robotics.

JPEG AI

JPEG AI scope is the creation of a learning-based image coding standard offering a single-stream, compact compressed domain representation, targeting both human visualisation with significant compression efficiency improvement over image coding standards in common use at equivalent subjective quality, and effective performance for image processing and computer vision tasks. At the 92nd JPEG meeting, several activities were carried out towards the launch of the final JPEG AI Call for Proposals. This has included improvements of the training and test conditions for learning-based image coding, especially in the areas of the JPEG AI training dataset, target bitrates, computation of quality metrics, subjective quality evaluation, and complexity assessment. A software package called the JPEG AI objective quality assessment framework, with a reference implementation of all objective quality metrics, has been made available. Moreover, the results of the JPEG AI exploration experiments for image processing and computer vision tasks defined at the previous 91st JPEG meeting were presented and discussed, including their impact on Common Test Conditions.

Moreover, the JPEG AI Use Cases and Requirements were refined with two new core requirements regarding reconstruction reproducibility and hardware platform independence. The second draft of the Call for Proposals was produced and the timeline of the JPEG AI work item was revised. It was decided that the final Call for Proposals will be issued as an outcome of the 94th JPEG Meeting. The deadline for expression of interest and registration is 5 February 2022 and the submission of bitstreams and decoded images for the test dataset are due on 30 April 2022.

JPEG AIC

Image quality assessment remains an essential component in the development of image coding technologies. A new activity has been initiated in the JPEG AIC framework to study the assessment of image coding quality, with particular attention to crowd-sourced subjective evaluation methodologies and image coding at fidelity targets relevant for end-user image delivery on the web and consumer-grade photo archival.

JPEG Systems

JUMBF (ISO/IEC 19566-5 AMD1) and JPEG 360 (ISO/IEC 19566-6 AMD1) are now published standards available through ISO. A request to create the second amendment of JUMBF (ISO/IEC 19566-5) has been produced; this amendment will further extend the functionality to cover use cases and requirements under development in the JPEG Fake Media exploration initiative. The Systems software efforts are progressing on the development of a file parser for most JPEG standards and will include support for metadata within JUMBF boxes. Interested parties are invited to subscribe to the mailing list of the JPEG Systems AhG in order to monitor and contribute to JPEG Systems activities.

JPEG XS

JPEG XS aims at the standardization of a visually lossless low-latency and lightweight compression that can be used as a mezzanine codec in various markets. With the second editions of Part 1 (core coding system), Part 2 (profiles and buffer models), and Part 3 (transport and container formats) under ballot to become International Standards, the work during this JPEG meeting went into the second edition of Part 4 (Conformance Testing) and Part 5 (Reference Software). The second edition primarily brings new coding and signalling capabilities to support raw Bayer sensor content, mathematically lossless coding of images with up to 12 bits per colour component sample, and 4:2:0-sampled image content. In addition, the JPEG Committee continued its initial exploration to study potential future improvements to JPEG XS, while still honouring its low-complexity and low-latency requirements. Among such improvements are better support for high dynamic range (HDR), better support for raw Bayer sensor content, and overall improved compression efficiency. The compression efficiency work also targets improved handling of computer-screen content and artificially-generated rendered content.

JPEG XL

JPEG XL aims at standardization for image coding that offers high compression efficiency, along with features desirable for web distribution and efficient compression of high-quality images. JPEG XL Part 3 (Conformance testing) has been promoted to the Committee Draft stage of the ISO/IEC approval process. New core experiments were defined to investigate hardware-based coding, in particular including fixed-point implementations. With preliminary support in major web browsers, image viewing and manipulation libraries and tools, JPEG XL is ready for wide-scale adoption.

JPEG DNA

The JPEG Committee has continued its exploration of the coding of images in quaternary representations, as is particularly suitable for DNA storage. Two new use cases were identified as well as the sequencing noise models and simulators to use for DNA digital storage. There was a successful presentation of the fourth workshop by the stakeholders, and a new version of the JPEG DNA overview document was issued and is now publicly available. It was decided to continue this exploration by organising the fifth workshop and conducting further outreach to stakeholders, as well as to continue improving the JPEG DNA overview document. Moreover, it was also decided to produce software to simulate an end-to-end image storage pipeline using DNA storage for future exploration experiments. Interested parties are invited to consider joining the effort by registering to the mailing list of JPEG DNA.

Final Quote

“The JPEG Committee is considering standardisation needs for timely and effective specifications that can best support the use of NFTs in applications where media assets can be represented with JPEG formats.” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

Upcoming JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No 93, to be held online during 18-22 October 2021.
  • No 94, to be held online during 17-21 January 2022.

JPEG Column: 91st JPEG Meeting

JPEG Committee issues a Call for Proposals on Holography coding

The 91st JPEG meeting was held online from 19 to 23 April 2021. This meeting saw several activities relating to holographic coding, notably the release of the JPEG Pleno Holography Call for Proposals, consolidated with the definition of the use cases and requirements for holographic coding and common test conditions that will assure the evaluation of the future proposals.

Reconstructed hologram from B-com database (http://plenodb.jpeg.org/).

The 91st meeting was also marked by the start of a new exploration initiative on Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs), due to the recent interest in this technology in a large number of applications and in particular in digital art. Since NFTs rely on decentralized networks and JPEG has been analysing the implications of Blockchains and distributed ledger technologies in imaging, it is a natural next step to explore how JPEG standardization can facilitate interoperability between applications that make use of NFTs.

The following presents an overview of the major achievements carried out during the 91st JPEG meeting.

The 91st JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

  • JPEG launches call for proposals for the first standard in holographic coding,
  • JPEG NFT,
  • JPEG Fake Media,
  • JPEG AI,
  • JPEG Systems,
  • JPEG XS,
  • JPEG XL,
  • JPEG DNA,
  • JPEG Reference Software.

JPEG launches call for proposals for the first standard in holographic coding

JPEG Pleno aims to provide a standard framework for representing new imaging modalities, such as light field, point cloud, and holographic content. JPEG Pleno Holography is the first standardization effort for a versatile solution to efficiently compress holograms for a wide range of applications ranging from holographic microscopy to tomography, interferometry, and printing and display, as well as their associated hologram types. Key functionalities include support for both lossy and lossless coding, scalability, random access, and integration within the JPEG Pleno system architecture, with the goal of supporting a royalty free baseline.

The final Call for Proposals (CfP) on JPEG Pleno Holography – a milestone in the roll-out of the JPEG Pleno framework – has been issued as the main result of the 91st JPEG meeting, Online, 19-23 April 2021. The deadline for expressions of interest and registration is 1 August 2021. Submissions to the Call for Proposals are due on 1 September 2021.

A second milestone reached at this meeting was the promotion to International Standard of JPEG Pleno Part 2: Light Field Coding (ISO/IEC 21794-2). This standard provides light field coding tools originating from either microlens cameras or camera arrays. Part 1 of this standard, which was promoted to International Standard earlier, provides the overall file format syntax supporting light field, holography and point cloud modalities.

During the 91st JPEG meeting, the JPEG Committee officially began an exciting phase of JPEG Pleno Point Cloud coding standardisation with a focus on learning-based point cloud coding.

The scope of the JPEG Pleno Point Cloud activity is the creation of a learning-based coding standard for point clouds and associated attributes, offering a single-stream, compact compressed domain representation, supporting advanced flexible data access functionalities. The JPEG Pleno Point Cloud standard targets both interactive human visualization, with significant compression efficiency over state of the art point cloud coding solutions commonly used at equivalent subjective quality, and also enables effective performance for 3D processing and computer vision tasks. The JPEG Committee expects the standard to support a royalty-free baseline.

The standard is envisioned to provide a number of unique benefits, including an efficient single point cloud representation for both humans and machines. The intent is to provide humans with the ability to visualise and interact with the point cloud geometry and attributes while providing machines the ability to perform 3D processing and computer vision tasks in the compressed domain, enabling lower complexity and higher accuracy through the use of compressed domain features extracted from the original instead of the lossily decoded point cloud.

JPEG NFT

Non-Fungible Tokens have been the focus of much attention in recent months. Several digitals assets that NFTs point to are either in existing JPEG formats or can be represented in current and emerging formats under development by the JPEG Committee. Furthermore, several trust and security issues have been raised regarding NFTs and the digital assets they rely on. Here again, JPEG Committee has a significant track record in security and trust in imaging applications. Building on this background, the JPEG Committee has launched a new exploration initiative around NFTs to better understand the needs in terms of imaging requirements and how existing as well as potential JPEG standards can help bring security and trust to NFTs in a wide range of applications and notably those that rely on contents that are represented in JPEG formats in still and animated pictures and 3D contents. The first steps in this initiative involve outreach to stakeholders in NFTs and its application and organization of a workshop to discuss challenges and current solutions in NFTs, notably in the context of applications relevant to the scope of the JPEG Standardization Committee. JPEG Committee invites interested parties to subscribe to the mailing list of the JPEG NFT exploration via http://listregistration.jpeg.org.

JPEG Fake Media

The JPEG Fake Media exploration activity continues its work to assess standardization needs to facilitate secure and reliable annotation of media asset creation and modifications in good faith usage scenarios as well as in those with malicious intent. At the 91st meeting, the JPEG Committee released an updated version of the “JPEG Fake Media Context, Use Cases and Requirements” document. This new version includes several refinements including an improved and coherent set of definitions covering key terminology. The requirements have been extended and reorganized into three main identified categories: media creation and modification descriptions, metadata embedding framework and authenticity verification framework. The presentations and video recordings of the 2nd Workshop on JPEG Fake Media are now available on the JPEG website. JPEG invites interested parties to regularly visit https://jpeg.org/jpegfakemedia for the latest information and subscribe to the mailing list via http://listregistration.jpeg.org.

JPEG AI

At the 91st meeting, the results of the JPEG AI exploration experiments for the image processing and computer vision tasks defined at the previous 90th meeting were presented and discussed. Based on the analysis of the results, the exploration experiments description was improved. This activity will allow the definition of a performance assessment framework to use in the learning-based image codecs latent representation in several visual analysis tasks, such as compressed domain image classification and compressed domain material and texture recognition. Moreover, the impact of such experiments on the current version of the Common Test Conditions (CTC) was discussed. 

Moreover, the draft of the Call for Proposals was analysed, notably regarding the training dataset and training procedures as well as the submission requirements. The timeline of the JPEG AI work item was discussed and it was agreed that the final Call for Proposals (CfP) will be issued as an outcome of the 93rd JPEG Meeting. The deadline for expression of interest and registration is 5 November 2021. Further, the submission of bitstreams and decoded images for the test dataset are due on 30 January 2022.

JPEG Systems

During the 91st meeting, the Draft International Standard (DIS) text of JLINK (ISO/IEC 19566-7) and Committee Draft (CD) text of JPEG Snack (ISO/IEC 19566-8) were completed and will be submitted for ballot. Amendments for JUMBF (ISO/IEC 19566-5 AMD1) and JPEG 360 (ISO/IEC 19566-6 AMD1) received a final review and are being released for publication. In addition, new extensions to JUMBF (ISO/IEC 19566-5) are under consideration to support rapidly emerging use cases related to content authenticity and integrity; updated use cases and requirements are being drafted. Finally, discussions have started to create awareness on how to interact with JUMBF boxes and the information they contain, without breaking integrity or interoperability. Interested parties are invited to subscribe to the mailing list of the JPEG Systems AHG in order to contribute to the above activities via http://listregistration.jpeg.org.

JPEG XS

The second editions of JPEG XS Part 1 (Core coding system) and Part 3 (Transport and container formats) were prepared for Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) balloting, with the intention of having both standards published by October 2021. The second editions integrate new coding and signalling capabilities to support RAW Bayer colour filter array (CFA) images, 4:2:0 sampled images and mathematically lossless coding of up to 12-bits per component. The associated profiles and buffer models are handled in Part 2, which is currently under DIS ballot. The focus now has shifted to work on the second editions of Part 4 (Conformance testing) and Part 5 (Reference software). Finally, the JPEG Committee defined a study to investigate future improvements to high dynamic range (HDR) and mathematically lossless compression capabilities, while still honouring the low-complexity and low-latency requirements. In particular, for RAW Bayer CFA content, the JPEG Committee will work on extensions of JPEG XS supporting lossless compression of CFA patterns at sample bit depths above 12 bits.

JPEG XL

The JPEG Committee has finalized JPEG XL Part 2 (File format), which is now at the FDIS stage. A Main profile has been specified in draft Amendment 1 to Part 1, which entered the draft amendment (DAM) stage of the approval process at the current meeting. The draft Main profile has two levels: Level 5 for end-user image delivery and Level 10 for generic use cases, including image authoring workflows. Now that the criteria for conformance have been determined, the JPEG Committee has defined new core experiments to define a set of test codestreams that provides full coverage of the coding tools. Part 4 (Reference software) is now at the DIS stage. With the first edition FDIS texts of both Part 1 and Part 2 now complete, JPEG XL is ready for wide adoption.

JPEG DNA

The JPEG Committee has continued its exploration of coding of images in quaternary representation, particularly suitable for DNA storage. After a successful third workshop presentation by stakeholders, two new use cases were identified along with a large number of new requirements, and a new version of the JPEG DNA overview document was issued and is now made publicly available. It was decided to continue this exploration by organizing the fourth workshop and conducting further outreach to stakeholders, as well as continuing with improving the JPEG DNA overview document.

Interested parties are invited to refer to the following URL and to consider joining the effort by registering to the mailing list of JPEG DNA here: https://jpeg.org/jpegdna/index.html.

JPEG Reference Software

The JPEG Committee is pleased to announce that its standard on the JPEG reference software, 2nd edition, reached the state of International Standard and will be publicly available from both ITU and ISO/IEC.

This standard, to appear as ITU-T T.873 | ISO/IEC 10918-7 (2nd Edition) provides reference implementations to the first JPEG standard, used daily throughout the world. The software included in this document guides vendors on how JPEG (ISO/IEC 10918-1) can be implemented and may serve as a baseline and starting point for JPEG
encoders or decoders.

This second edition updates the two reference implementations to their latest versions, fixing minor defects in the software.

Final Quote

“JPEG standards continue to be a motor of innovation and an enabler of new applications in imaging as witnessed by the release of the first standard for coding of holographic content.” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No. 92, will be held online from 7 to 13 July 2021.
  • No 93, is planned to be held in Berlin, Germany during 16-22 October 2021.

JPEG Column: 90th JPEG Meeting

JPEG AI becomes a new work item of ISO/IEC

The 90th JPEG meeting was held online from 18 to 22 January 2021. This meeting was distinguished by very relevant activities, notably the new JPEG AI standardization project planning, and the analysis of the Call for Evidence on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding.

The new JPEG AI Learning-based Image Coding System has become an official new work item registered under ISO/IEC 6048 and aims at providing compression efficiency in addition to image processing and computer visions tasks without the need for decompression.

The response to the Call for Evidence on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding was a learning-based method that was found to offer state of the art compression efficiency.  Considering this response, the JPEG Pleno Point Cloud activity will analyse the possibility of preparing a future call for proposals on learning-based coding solutions that will also consider new functionalities, building on the relevant use cases already identified that require machine learning tasks processed in the compressed domain.

Meanwhile the new JPEG XL coding system has reached FDIS stage and it is ready for adoption. JPEG XL offers compression efficiency similar to the best state of the art in image coding, the best lossless compression performance, affordable low complexity and integration with the legacy JPEG image coding standard allowing a friendly transition between the two standards.

The new JPEG AI logo.

The 90th JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

  • JPEG AI,
  • JPEG Pleno Point Cloud response to the Call for Evidence,
  • JPEG XL Core Coding System reaches FDIS stage,
  • JPEG Fake Media exploration,
  • JPEG DNA continues the exploration on image coding suitable for DNA storage,
  • JPEG systems,
  • JPEG XS 2nd edition of Profiles reaches DIS stage.

JPEG AI

The scope of the JPEG AI is the creation of a learning-based image coding standard offering a single-stream, compact compressed domain representation, targeting both human visualization with significant compression efficiency improvement over image coding standards in common use at equivalent subjective quality, and effective performance for image processing and computer vision tasks, with the goal of supporting a royalty-free baseline.

JPEG AI has made several advances during the 90th technical meeting. During this meeting, the JPEG AI Use Cases and Requirements were discussed and collaboratively defined. Moreover, the JPEG AI vision and the overall system framework of an image compression solution with efficient compressed domain representation was defined. Following this approach, a set of exploration experiments were defined to assess the capabilities of the compressed representation generated by learning-based image codecs, considering some specific computer vision and image processing tasks.

Moreover, the performance assessment of the most popular objective quality metrics, using subjective scores obtained during the call for evidence were discussed, as well as anchors and some techniques to perform spatial prediction and entropy coding.

JPEG Pleno Point Cloud response to the Call for Evidence

JPEG Pleno is working towards the integration of various modalities of plenoptic content under a single and seamless framework. Efficient and powerful point cloud representation is a key feature within this vision. Point cloud data supports a wide range of applications including computer-aided manufacturing, entertainment, cultural heritage preservation, scientific research and advanced sensing and analysis. During the 90th JPEG meeting, the JPEG Committee reached an exciting major milestone and reviewed the results of its Final Call for Evidence on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding. With an innovative Deep Learning based point cloud codec supporting scalability and random access submitted, the Call for Evidence results highlighted the emerging role of Deep Learning in point cloud representation and processing. Between the 90th and 91st meetings, the JPEG Committee will be refining the scope and direction of this activity in light of the results of the Call for Evidence.

JPEG XL Core Coding System reaches FDIS stage

The JPEG Committee has finalized JPEG XL Part 1 (Core Coding System), which is now at FDIS stage. The committee has defined new core experiments to determine appropriate profiles and levels for the codec, as well as appropriate criteria for defining conformance. With Part 1 complete, and Part 2 close to completion, JPEG XL is ready for evaluation and adoption by the market.

JPEG Fake Media exploration

The JPEG Committee initiated the JPEG Fake Media JPEG exploration study with the objective to create a standard that can facilitate secure and reliable annotation of media asset generation and modifications. The initiative aims to support usage scenarios that are in good faith as well as those with malicious intent. During the 90th JPEG meeting, the committee released a new version of the document entitled “JPEG Fake Media: Context Use Cases and Requirements” which is available on the JPEG website. A first workshop on the topic was organized on the 15th of December 2020. The program, presentations and a video recording of this workshop are available on the JPEG website. A second workshop will be organized around March 2021. More details will be made available soon on JPEG.org. JPEG invites interested parties to regularly visit https://jpeg.org/jpegfakemedia for the latest information and subscribe to the mailing list via http://listregistration.jpeg.org.

JPEG DNA continues the exploration on image coding suitable for DNA storage

The JPEG Committee continued its exploration for coding of images in quaternary representation, particularly suitable for DNA storage. After a second successful workshop presentation by stakeholders, additional requirements were identified, and a new version of the JPEG DNA overview document was issued and made publicly available. It was decided to continue this exploration by organising a third workshop and further outreach to stakeholders, as well as a proposal for an updated version of the JPEG overview document. Interested parties are invited to refer to the following URL and to consider joining the effort by registering to the mailing list of JPEG DNA here: https://jpeg.org/jpegdna/index.html.

JPEG Systems

JUMBF (ISO/IEC 19566-5) Amendment 1 draft review is complete and it is proceeding to international standard and subsequent publication; additional features to support new applications are under consideration.   Likewise, JPEG 360 (ISO/IEC 19566-5) Amendment 1 draft review is complete, and it is proceeding to international standard and subsequent publication.  The JLINK (ISO/IEC 19566-7) standard completed the committee draft review and is preparing a DIS study text ahead of the 91st meeting. The JPEG Snack (ISO/IEC 19566-8) will make a second working draft.  Interested parties can subscribe to the mailing list of the JPEG Systems AHG in order to contribute to the above activities.

JPEG XS 2nd edition of Profiles reaches DIS stage

The 2nd edition of Part 2 (Profiles) is now at the DIS stage and defines the required new profiles and levels to support the compression of raw Bayer content, mathematically lossless coding of up to 12-bit per component images, and 4:2:0 sampled image content. With the second editions of Parts 1, 2, and 3 completed, and the scheduled second editions of Part 4 (Conformance) and 5 (Reference Software), JPEG XS will soon have received a complete backwards-compatible revision of its entire suite of standards. Moreover, the committee defined a new exploration study to create new coding tools for improving the HDR and mathematically lossless compression capabilities, while still honoring the low-complexity and low-latency requirements.

Final Quote

“The official approval of JPEG AI by JPEG Parent Bodies ISO and IEC is a strong signal of support of this activity and its importance in the creation of AI-based imaging applications” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No 91, will be held online from April 19 to 23, 2021.
  • No 92, will be held online from July 7 to 13, 2021.

JPEG Column: 89th JPEG Meeting

JPEG initiates standardisation of image compression based on AI

The 89th JPEG meeting was held online from 5 to 9 October 2020.

During this meeting, multiple JPEG standardisation activities and explorations were discussed and progressed. Notably, the call for evidence on learning-based image coding was successfully completed and evidence was found that this technology promises several new functionalities while offering at the same time superior compression efficiency, beyond the state of the art. A new work item, JPEG AI, that will use learning-based image coding as core technology has been proposed, enlarging the already wide families of JPEG standards.

Figure 1. JPEG Families of standards and JPEG AI.

The 89th JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

  • JPEG AI call for evidence report
  • JPEG explores standardization needs to address fake media
  • JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding reviews the status of the call for evidence
  • JPEG Pleno Holography call for proposals timeline
  • JPEG DNA identifies use cases and requirements
  • JPEG XL standard defines the final specification
  • JPEG Systems JLINK reaches committee draft stage
  • JPEG XS 2nd Edition Parts 1, 2 and 3.

JPEG AI

At the 89th meeting, the submissions to the Call for Evidence on learning-based image coding were presented and discussed. Four submissions were received in response to the Call for Evidence. The results of the subjective evaluation of the submissions to the Call for Evidence were reported and discussed in detail by experts. It was agreed that there is strong evidence that learning-based image coding solutions can outperform the already defined anchors in terms of compression efficiency when compared to state-of-the-art conventional image coding architecture. Thus, it was decided to create a new standardisation activity for a JPEG AI on learning-based image coding system, that applies machine learning tools to achieve substantially better compression efficiency compared to current image coding systems, while offering unique features desirable for efficient distribution and consumption of images. This type of approach should allow obtaining an efficient compressed domain representation not only for visualisation but also for machine learning-based image processing and computer vision. JPEG AI releases to the public the results of the objective and subjective evaluations as well as the first version of common test conditions for assessing the performance of learning-based image coding systems.

JPEG explores standardization needs to address fake media

Recent advances in media modification, particularly deep learning-based approaches, can produce near realistic media content that is almost indistinguishable from authentic content. These developments open opportunities for production of new types of media contents that are useful for many creative industries but also increase risks of spread of maliciously modified content (e.g., ‘deepfake’) leading to social unrest, spreading of rumours or encouragement of hate crimes. The JPEG Committee is interested in exploring if a JPEG standard can facilitate a secure and reliable annotation of media modifications, both in good faith and malicious usage scenarios. 

The JPEG is currently discussing with stakeholders from academia, industry and other organisations to explore the use cases that will define a roadmap to identify the requirements leading to a potential standard. The Committee has received significant interest and has released a public document outlining the context, use cases and requirements. JPEG invites experts and technology users to actively participate in this activity and attend a workshop, to be held online in December 2020. Details on the activities of JPEG in this area can be found on the JPEG.org website. Interested parties are notably encouraged to register to the mailing list of the ad hoc group that has been set up to facilitate the discussions and coordination on this topic.

JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding

JPEG Pleno is working towards the integration of various modalities of plenoptic content under a single and seamless framework. Efficient and powerful point cloud representation is a key feature within this vision. Point cloud data supports a wide range of applications including computer-aided manufacturing, entertainment, cultural heritage preservation, scientific research and advanced sensing and analysis. During the 89th JPEG meeting, the JPEG Committee reviewed expressions of interest in the Final Call for Evidence on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding. This Call for Evidence focuses specifically on point cloud coding solutions supporting scalability and random access of decoded point clouds. Between its 89th and 90th meetings, the JPEG Committee will be actively promoting this activity and collecting submissions to participate in the Call for Evidence.

JPEG Pleno Holography

At the 89th meeting, the JPEG Committee released an updated draft of the Call for Proposals for JPEG Pleno Holography. A final Call for Proposals on JPEG Pleno Holography will be released in April 2021. JPEG Pleno Holography is seeking for compression solutions of holographic content. The scope of the activity is quite large and addresses diverse use cases such as holographic microscopy and tomography, but also holographic displays and printing. Current activities are centred around refining the objective and subjective quality assessment procedures. Interested parties are already invited at this stage to participate in these activities.

JPEG DNA

JPEG standards are used in storage and archival of digital pictures. This puts the JPEG Committee in a good position to address the challenges of DNA-based storage by proposing an efficient image coding format to create artificial DNA molecules. JPEG DNA has been established as an exploration activity within the JPEG Committee to study use cases, to identify requirements and to assess the state of the art in DNA storage for the purpose of image archival using DNA in order to launch a standardization activity. To this end, a first workshop was organised on 30 September 2020. Presentations made at the workshop are available from the following URL: http://ds.jpeg.org/proceedings/JPEG_DNA_1st_Workshop_Proceedings.zip.
At its 89th meeting, the JPEG Committee released a second version of a public document that describes its findings regarding storage of digital images using artificial DNA. In this framework, JPEG DNA ad hoc group was re-conducted in order to continue its activities to further refine the above-mentioned document and to organise a second workshop. Interested parties are invited to join this activity by participating in the AHG through the following URL: http://listregistration.jpeg.org.

JPEG XL

Final technical comments by national bodies have been addressed and incorporated into the JPEG XL specification (ISO/IEC 18181-1) and the reference implementation. A draft FDIS study text has been prepared and final validation experiments are planned.

JPEG Systems

The JLINK (ISO/IEC 19566-7) standard has reached the committee draft stage and will be made public.  The JPEG Committee invites technical feedback on the document which is available on the JPEG website.  Development of the JPEG Snack (IS0/IEC 19566-8) standard has begun to support the defined use cases and requirements.  Interested parties can subscribe to the mailing list of the JPEG Systems AHG in order to contribute to the above activities.

JPEG XS

The JPEG committee is finalizing its work on the 2nd Editions of JPEG-XS Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3. Part 1 defines new coding tools required to efficiently compress raw Bayer images. The observed quality gains of raw Bayer compression over compressing in the RGB domain can be as high as 5dB PSNR. Moreover, the second edition adds support for mathematically lossless image compression and allows compression of 4:2:0 sub-sampled images. Part 2 defines new profiles for such content. With the support for low-complexity high-quality compression of raw Bayer (or Color-Filtered Array) data, JPEG XS proves to also be an excellent compression scheme in the professional and consumer digital camera market, as well as in the machine vision and automotive industry.

Final Quote

“JPEG AI will be a new work item completing the collection of JPEG standards. JPEG AI relies on artificial intelligence to compress images. This standard not only will offer superior compression efficiency beyond the current state of the art but also will open new possibilities for vision tasks by machines and computational imaging for humans.” Said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No 90, will be held online from January 18 to 22, 2021.
  • N0 91, will be held online from April 19 to 23, 2021.

JPEG Column: 88th JPEG Meeting

The 88th JPEG meeting initially planned to be held in Geneva, Switzerland, was held online because of the Covid-19 outbreak.

JPEG experts organised a large number of sessions spread over day and night to allow the remote participation of multiple time zones. A very intense activity has resulted in multiple outputs and initiatives. In particular two new explorations activities were initiated. The first explores possible standardisation needs to address the growing emergence of fake media by introducing appropriate security features to prevent the misuse of media content. The latest, considers the use of DNA for media content archival.

Furthermore, JPEG has started the work on the new part 8 of the JPEG Systems standard, called JPEG snack, for interoperable rich image experiences, and it is holding two Call for Evidence, JPEG AI and JPEG Pleno Point cloud coding.

Despite travel restrictions, JPEG Committee has managed to keep up with the majority of its plans, defined prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. An overview of the different activities is represented in Fig. 1.

Figure 1 – JPEG Planned Timeline.

The 88th JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

  • JPEG explores standardization needs to address fake media
  • JPEG Pleno Point Cloud call for evidence
  • JPEG DNA – based archival of media content using DNA
  • JPEG AI call for evidence
  • JPEG XL standard evolves to a final specification
  • JPEG Systems part 8, named JPEG Snack progress
  • JPEG XS Part-1 2nd Edition first ballot.

JPEG explores standardization needs to address fake media

Recent advances in media manipulation, particularly deep learning-based approaches, can produce near realistic media content that is almost indistinguishable from authentic content to the human eye. These developments open opportunities for production of new types of media contents that are useful for the entertainment industry and other business usage, e.g., creation of special effects or artificial natural scene production with actors in the studio. However, this also leads to issues relating to fake media generation undermining the integrity of the media (e.g., deepfakes), copyright infringements and defamation to mention a few examples. Misuse of manipulated media can cause social unrest, spread rumours for political gain or encourage hate crimes. In this context, the term ‘fake’ is used here to refer to any manipulated media, independently of its ‘good’ or ‘bad’ intention.

In many application domains, fake media producers may want or may be required to declare the type of manipulations performed, in opposition to other situations where the intention is to ‘hide’ the mere existence of such manipulations. This is already leading various Governmental organizations to plan new legislation or companies (especially social media platforms or news outlets) to develop mechanisms that would clearly detect and annotate manipulated media contents when they are shared. While growing efforts are noticeable in developing technologies, there is a need to have a standard for the media/metadata format, e.g., a JPEG standard that facilitates a secure and reliable annotation of fake media, both in good faith and malicious usage scenarios. To better understand the fake media ecosystem and needs in terms of standardization, the JPEG Committee has initiated an in-depth analysis of fake media use cases, naturally independently of the “intentions”.     

More information on the initiative is available on the JPEG website. Interested parties are invited to join the above AHG through the following URL: http://listregistration.jpeg.org.

JPEG Pleno Point Cloud

JPEG Pleno is working towards the integration of various modalities of plenoptic content under a single and seamless framework. Efficient and powerful point cloud representation is a key feature within this vision. Point cloud data supports a wide range of applications including computer-aided manufacturing, entertainment, cultural heritage preservation, scientific research and advanced sensing and analysis. During the 88th JPEG meeting, the JPEG Committee released a Final Call for Evidence on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding that focuses specifically on point cloud coding solutions supporting scalability and random access of decoded point clouds. Between the 88th and 89th meetings, the JPEG Committee will be actively promoting this activity and collecting registrations to participate in the Call for Evidence.

JPEG DNA

In digital media information, notably images, the relevant representation symbols, e.g. quantized DCT coefficients, are expressed in bits (i.e., binary units) but they could be expressed in any other units, for example the DNA units which follow a 4-ary representation basis. This would mean that DNA molecules may be created with a specific DNA units’ configuration which stores some media representation symbols, e.g. the symbols of a JPEG image, thus leading to DNA-based media storage as a form of molecular data storage. JPEG standards have been used in storage and archival of digital pictures as well as moving images. While the legacy JPEG format is widely used for photo storage in SD cards, as well as archival of pictures by consumers,  JPEG 2000 as described in ISO/IEC 15444 is used in many archival applications, notably for preservation of cultural heritage in form of visual data as pictures and video in digital format. This puts the JPEG Committee in a unique position to address the challenges in DNA-based storage by creating a standard image representation and coding for such applications. To explore the latter, an AHG has been established. Interested parties are invited to join the above AHG through the following URL: http://listregistration.jpeg.org.

JPEG AI

At the 88th meeting, the submissions to the Call for Evidence were reported and analysed. Six submissions were received in response to the Call for Evidence made in coordination with the IEEE MMSP 2020 Challenge. The submissions along with the anchors were already evaluated using objective quality metrics. Following this initial process, subjective experiments have been designed to compare the performance of all submissions. Thus, during this meeting, the main focus of JPEG AI was on the presentation and discussion of the objective performance evaluation of all submissions as well as the definition of the methodology for the subjective evaluation that will be made next.

JPEG XL

The standardization of the JPEG XL image coding system is nearing completion. Final technical comments by national bodies have been received for the codestream (Part 1); the DIS has been approved and an FDIS text is under preparation. The container file format (Part 2) is progressing to the DIS stage. A white paper summarizing key features of JPEG XL is available at http://ds.jpeg.org/whitepapers/jpeg-xl-whitepaper.pdf.

JPEG Systems

ISO/IEC has approved the JPEG Snack initiative to deliver interoperable rich image experiences.  As a result, the JPEG Systems Part 8 (ISO/IEC 19566-8) has been created to define the file format construction and the metadata signalling and descriptions which enable animation with transition effects.  A Call for Participation and updated use cases and requirements have been issued. The CfP and the use cases and requirements documents are available at http://ds.jpeg.org/documents/wg1n87035-REQ-JPEG_Snack_Use_Cases_and_Requirements_v2_2.pdf and http://ds.jpeg.org/documents/wg1n88032-SI-CfP_JPEG_Snack.pdf respectively.

An updated working draft for the JLINK initiative was completed.  Interest parties are encouraged to review the JLINK Working Draft 3.0 available at http://ds.jpeg.org/documents/wg1n88031-SI-JLINK_WD_3_0.pdf

JPEG XS

The JPEG committee is pleased to announce a significant step in the standardization of an efficient Bayer image compression scheme, with the first ballot of the 2nd Edition of JPEG XS Part-1.

The new edition of this visually lossless low-latency and lightweight compression scheme now includes image sensor coding tools allowing efficient compression of Color-Filtered Array (CFA) data. This compression enables better quality and lower complexity than the corresponding compression in the RGB domain.  It can be used as a mezzanine codec in various markets such as real-time video storage in and outside of cameras, and data compression onboard autonomous cars.

Final Quote

“Fake Media has become a challenge with the wide-spread manipulated contents in the news. JPEG is determined to mitigate this problem by providing standards that can securely identify manipulated contents.” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No 89, will be held online from October 5 to 9, 2020.

JPEG Column: 87th JPEG Meeting

The 87th JPEG meeting initially planned to be held in Erlangen, Germany, was held online from 25-30, April 2020 because of the Covid-19 outbreak. JPEG experts participated in a number of online meetings attempting to make them as effective as possible while considering participation from different time zones, ranging from Australia to California, U.S.A.

JPEG decided to proceed with a Second Call for Evidence on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding and continued work to prepare for contributions to the previous Call for Evidence on Learning-based Image Coding Technologies (JPEG AI).

The 87th JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

  • JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding issues a Call for Evidence on coding solutions supporting scalability and random access of decoded point clouds.
  • JPEG AI defines evaluation methodologies of the Call for Evidence on machine learning based image coding solutions.
  • JPEG XL defines the file format compatible with existing formats. 
  • JPEG exploration on Media Blockchain releases use cases and requirements.
  • JPEG Systems releases a first version of JPEG Snack use cases and requirements.
  • JPEG XS announces significant improvement of the quality of raw-Bayer image sensor data compression.

JPEG Pleno Point Cloud

JPEG Pleno is working towards the integration of various modalities of plenoptic content under a single and seamless framework. Efficient and powerful point cloud representation is a key feature within this vision. Point cloud data supports a wide range of applications including computer-aided manufacturing, entertainment, cultural heritage preservation, scientific research and advanced sensing and analysis. During the 87th JPEG meeting, the JPEG Committee released a Second Call for Evidence on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding that focuses specifically on point cloud coding solutions supporting scalability and random access of decoded point clouds. The Second Call for Evidence on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding has a revised timeline reflecting changes in the activity due to the 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic. A Final Call for Evidence on JPEG Pleno Point Cloud Coding is planned to be released in July 2020.

JPEG AI

The main focus of JPEG AI was on the promotion and definition of the submission and evaluation methodologies of the Call for Evidence (in coordination with the IEEE MMSP 2020 Challenge) that was issued as outcome of the 86th JPEG meeting, Sydney, Australia.

JPEG XL

The File Format has been defined for JPEG XL (ISO/IEC 18181-1) codestream, metadata and extensions. The file format enables compatibility with ISOBMFF, JUMBF, XMP, Exif and other existing standards. Standardization has now reached the Committee Draft stage and the DIS ballot is ongoing. A white paper about JPEG XL’s features and tools was approved at this meeting and is available on the jpeg.org website.

JPEG exploration on Media Blockchain – Call for feedback on use cases and requirements

JPEG has determined that blockchain and distributed ledger technologies (DLT) have great potential as a technology component to address many privacy and security related challenges in digital media applications. This includes digital rights management, privacy and security, integrity verification, and authenticity, that impacts society in several ways including the loss of income in the creative sector due to piracy, the spread of fake news, or evidence tampering for fraud purposes.

JPEG is exploring standardization needs related to media blockchain to ensure seamless interoperability and integration of blockchain technology with widely accepted media standards. In this context, the JPEG Committee announces a call for feedback from interested stakeholders on the first public release of the use cases and requirements document.

JPEG Systems initiates standardisation of JPEG Snack

Media “snacking”, the consumption of multimedia in short bursts (less than 15 minutes) has become globally popular. JPEG recognizes the need for standardizing how snack images are constructed to ensure interoperability. A first version of JPEG Snack use cases and requirements is now complete and publicly available on JPEG website inviting feedback from stakeholders.

JPEG made progress on a fundamental capability of the JPEG file structure with enhancements to JPEG Universal Metadata Box Format (JUMBF) to support embedding common file types; the DIS text for JUMBF Amendment 1 is ready for ballot. Likewise JPEG 360 Amendment 1 DIS text is ready for ballot; this amendment supports stereoscopic 360 degree images, accelerated rendering for regions-of-interest, and removes the XMP signature block from the metadata description.

JPEG XS – The JPEG committee is pleased to announce significant improvement of the quality of its upcoming Bayer compression.

Over the past year, an improvement of around 2dB has been observed for the new coding tools currently being developed for image sensor compression within JPEG XS. This visually lossless low-latency and lightweight compression scheme can be used as a mezzanine codec in various markets like real-time video storage inside and outside of cameras, and data compression onboard autonomous cars. Mathematically lossless capability is also investigated and encapsulation within MXF or SMPTE ST2110-22 is currently being finalized.

Final Quote

“JPEG is committed to the development of new standards that provide state of the art imaging solutions to the largest spectrum of stakeholders. During the 87th meeting, held online because of the Covid-19 pandemic, JPEG progressed well with its current and even launched new activities. Although some timelines had to be revisited, overall, no disruptions of the workplan have occurred.” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

About JPEG

The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a Working Group of ISO/IEC, the International Organisation for Standardization / International Electrotechnical Commission, (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) and of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T SG16), responsible for the popular JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG XR, JPSearch, JPEG XT and more recently, the JPEG XS, JPEG Systems, JPEG Pleno and JPEG XL families of imaging standards.

More information about JPEG and its work is available at jpeg.org or by contacting Antonio Pinheiro or Frederik Temmermans (pr@jpeg.org) of the JPEG Communication Subgroup.

If you would like to stay posted on JPEG activities, please subscribe to the jpeg-news mailing list on http://jpeg-news-list.jpeg.org.  

Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No 88, initially planned in Geneva, Switzerland, July 4 to 10, 2020, will be held online from July 7 to 10, 2020.