Author: Christian Timmerer, firstname.lastname@example.org
Affiliation: Alpen-Adria-Universität (AAU) Klagenfurt, Austria & Bitmovin Inc.
The 142nd MPEG meeting was held as a face-to-face meeting in Antalya, Türkiye, and the official press release can be found here and comprises the following items:The 142nd MPEG meeting was held as a face-to-face meeting in Antalya, Türkiye, and the official press release can be found here and comprises the following items:
- MPEG issues Call for Proposals for Feature Coding for Machines
- MPEG finalizes the 9th Edition of MPEG-2 Systems
- MPEG reaches the First Milestone for Storage and Delivery of Haptics Data
- MPEG completes 2nd Edition of Neural Network Coding (NNC)
- MPEG completes Verification Test Report and Conformance and Reference Software for MPEG Immersive Video
- MPEG finalizes work on metadata-based MPEG-D DRC Loudness Leveling
The press release text has been modified to match the target audience of ACM SIGMM and highlight research aspects targeting researchers in video technologies. This column focuses on the 9th edition of MPEG-2 Systems, storage and delivery of haptics data, neural network coding (NNC), MPEG immersive video (MIV), and updates on MPEG-DASH.
Feature Coding for Video Coding for Machines (FCVCM)
At the 142nd MPEG meeting, MPEG Technical Requirements (WG 2) issued a Call for Proposals (CfP) for technologies and solutions enabling efficient feature compression for video coding for machine vision tasks. This work on “Feature Coding for Video Coding for Machines (FCVCM)” aims at compressing intermediate features within neural networks for machine tasks. As applications for neural networks become more prevalent and the neural networks increase in complexity, use cases such as computational offload become more relevant to facilitate the widespread deployment of applications utilizing such networks. Initially as part of the “Video Coding for Machines” activity, over the last four years, MPEG has investigated potential technologies for efficient compression of feature data encountered within neural networks. This activity has resulted in establishing a set of ‘feature anchors’ that demonstrate the achievable performance for compressing feature data using state-of-the-art standardized technology. These feature anchors include tasks performed on four datasets.
Research aspects: FCVCM is about compression, and the central research aspect here is compression efficiency which can be tested against a commonly agreed dataset (anchors). Additionally, it might be attractive to research which features are relevant for video coding for machines (VCM) and quality metrics in this emerging domain. One might wonder whether, in the future, robots or other AI systems will participate in subjective quality assessments.
9th Edition of MPEG-2 Systems
MPEG-2 Systems was first standardized in 1994, defining two container formats: program stream (e.g., used for DVDs) and transport stream. The latter, also known as MPEG-2 Transport Stream (M2TS), is used for broadcast and internet TV applications and services. MPEG-2 Systems has been awarded a Technology and Engineering Emmy® in 2013 and at the 142nd MPEG meeting, MPEG Systems (WG 3) ratified the 9th edition of ISO/IEC 13818-1 MPEG-2 Systems. The new edition includes support for Low Complexity Enhancement Video Coding (LCEVC), the youngest in the MPEG family of video coding standards on top of more than 50 media stream types, including, but not limited to, 3D Audio and Versatile Video Coding (VVC). The new edition also supports new options for signaling different kinds of media, which can aid the selection of the best audio or other media tracks for specific purposes or user preferences. As an example, it can indicate that a media track provides information about a current emergency.
Research aspects: MPEG container formats such as MPEG-2 Systems and ISO Base Media File Format are necessary for storing and delivering multimedia content but are often neglected in research. Thus, I would like to take up the cudgels on behalf of the MPEG Systems working group and argue that researchers should pay more attention to these container formats and conduct research and experiments for its efficient use with respect to multimedia storage and delivery.
Storage and Delivery of Haptics Data
At the 142nd MPEG meeting, MPEG Systems (WG 3) reached the first milestone for ISO/IEC 23090-32 entitled “Carriage of haptics data” by promoting the text to Committee Draft (CD) status. This specification enables the storage and delivery of haptics data (defined by ISO/IEC 23090-31) in the ISO Base Media File Format (ISOBMFF; ISO/IEC 14496-12). Considering the nature of haptics data composed of spatial and temporal components, a data unit with various spatial or temporal data packets is used as a basic entity like an access unit of audio-visual media. Additionally, an explicit indication of a silent period considering the sparse nature of haptics data has been introduced in this draft. The standard is planned to be completed, i.e., to reach the status of Final Draft International Standard (FDIS), by the end of 2024.
Research aspects: Coding (ISO/IEC 23090-31) and carriage (ISO/IEC 23090-32) of haptics data goes hand in hand and needs further investigation concerning compression efficiency and storage/delivery performance with respect to various use cases.
Neural Network Coding (NNC)
Many applications of artificial neural networks for multimedia analysis and processing (e.g., visual and acoustic classification, extraction of multimedia descriptors, or image and video coding) utilize edge-based content processing or federated training. The trained neural networks for these applications contain many parameters (weights), resulting in a considerable size. Therefore, the MPEG standard for the compressed representation of neural networks for multimedia content description and analysis (NNC, ISO/IEC 15938-17, published in 2022) was developed, which provides a broad set of technologies for parameter reduction and quantization to compress entire neural networks efficiently.
Recently, an increasing number of artificial intelligence applications, such as edge-based content processing, content-adaptive video post-processing filters, or federated training, need to exchange updates of neural networks (e.g., after training on additional data or fine-tuning to specific content). Such updates include changes in the neural network parameters but may also involve structural changes in the neural network (e.g. when extending a classification method with a new class). In scenarios like federated training, these updates must be exchanged frequently, such that much more bandwidth over time is required, e.g., in contrast to the initial deployment of trained neural networks.
The second edition of NNC addresses these applications through efficient representation and coding of incremental updates and extending the set of compression tools that can be applied to both entire neural networks and updates. Trained models can be compressed to at least 10-20% and, for several architectures, even below 3% of their original size without performance loss. Higher compression rates are possible at moderate performance degradation. In a distributed training scenario, a model update after a training iteration can be represented at 1% or less of the base model size on average without sacrificing the classification performance of the neural network. NNC also provides synchronization mechanisms, particularly for distributed artificial intelligence scenarios, e.g., if clients in a federated learning environment drop out and later rejoin.
Research aspects: The incremental compression of neural networks enables various new use cases, which provides research opportunities for media coding and communication, including optimization thereof.
MPEG Immersive Video
At the 142nd MPEG meeting, MPEG Video Coding (WG 4) issued the verification test report of ISO/IEC 23090-12 MPEG immersive video (MIV) and completed the development of the conformance and reference software for MIV (ISO/IEC 23090-23), promoting it to the Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) stage.
MIV was developed to support the compression of immersive video content, in which multiple real or virtual cameras capture a real or virtual 3D scene. The standard enables the storage and distribution of immersive video content over existing and future networks for playback with 6 degrees of freedom (6DoF) of view position and orientation. MIV is a flexible standard for multi-view video plus depth (MVD) and multi-planar video (MPI) that leverages strong hardware support for commonly used video formats to compress volumetric video.
ISO/IEC 23090-23 specifies how to conduct conformance tests and provides reference encoder and decoder software for MIV. This draft includes 23 verified and validated conformance bitstreams spanning all profiles and encoding and decoding reference software based on version 15.1.1 of the test model for MPEG immersive video (TMIV). The test model, objective metrics, and other tools are publicly available at https://gitlab.com/mpeg-i-visual.
Research aspects: Conformance and reference software are usually provided to facilitate product conformance testing, but it also provides researchers with a common platform and dataset, allowing for the reproducibility of their research efforts. Luckily, conformance and reference software are typically publicly available with an appropriate open-source license.
Finally, I’d like to provide a quick update regarding MPEG-DASH, which has become a new part, namely redundant encoding and packaging for segmented live media (REAP; ISO/IEC 23009-9). The following figure provides the reference workflow for redundant encoding and packaging of live segmented media.
The reference workflow comprises (i) Ingest Media Presentation Description (I-MPD), (ii) Distribution Media Presentation Description (D-MPD), and (iii) Storage Media Presentation Description (S-MPD), among others; each defining constraints on the MPD and tracks of ISO base media file format (ISOBMFF).
Additionally, the MPEG-DASH Break out Group discussed various technologies under consideration, such as (a) combining HTTP GET requests, (b) signaling common media client data (CMCD) and common media server data (CMSD) in a MPEG-DASH MPD, (c) image and video overlays in DASH, and (d) updates on lower latency.
An updated overview of DASH standards/features can be found in the Figure below.
Research aspects: The REAP committee draft (CD) is publicly available feedback from academia and industry is appreciated. In particular, first performance evaluations or/and reports from proof of concept implementations/deployments would be insightful for the next steps in the standardization of REAP.
The 143rd MPEG meeting will be held in Geneva from July 17-21, 2023. Click here for more information about MPEG meetings and their developments.