Author: Antonio Pinheiro
Affiliation: Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (IT) and Universidade da Beira Interior (UBI), Portugal
JPEG Trust on a mission to re-establish trust in digital media
The 99th JPEG meeting was held online, from 24th to 28th April 2023.
Providing tools suitable for establishing provenance, authenticity and ownership of multimedia content is one of the most difficult challenges faced nowadays, considering the technological models that allow effective multimedia data manipulation and generation. As in the past, the JPEG Committee is again answering the emerging challenges in multimedia. JPEG Trust is a standard offering solutions to media authenticity, provenance and ownership.
Furthermore, learning-based coding standards, JPEG AI and JPEG Pleno Learning-based Point Cloud Coding, continue their development. New verification models that incorporate the technological developments resulting from verification experiments and contributions have been approved.
Also relevant, the responses to the Calls for Contributions on standardization of quality models of JPEG AIC and JPEG Pleno Light Field Quality Assessment received responses and started a collaborative process to define new standards.
The 99th JPEG meeting had the following highlights:
- New JPEG Trust international standard targets media authenticity
- JPEG AI new verification model
- JPEG DNA releases its call for proposals
- JPEG Pleno Light Field Quality Assessment analyses the response to the call for contributions
- JPEG AIC analyses the response to the call for contributions
- JPEG XE identifies use cases and requirements for event based vision
- JPEG Systems: JUMBF second edition is progressing to publication stage
- JPEG NFT prepares a call for proposals
- JPEG XS progress for its third edition
The following summarizes the major achievements during the 99th JPEG meeting.
New JPEG Trust international standard targets media authenticity
Drawing reliable conclusions about the authenticity of digital media is complicated, and becoming more so as AI-based synthetic media such as Deep Fakes and Generative Adversarial Netwodrks (GANs) start appearing. Consumers of social media are challenged to assess the trustworthiness of the media they encounter, and agencies that depend on the authenticity of media assets must be concerned with mistaking fake media for real, with risks of real-world consequences.
To address this problem and to provide leadership in global interoperable media asset authenticity, JPEG initiated development of a new international standard: JPEG Trust. JPEG Trust defines a framework for establishing trust in media. This framework adresses aspects of authenticity, provenance and integrity through secure and reliable annotation of media assets throughout their life cycle. The first part, “Core foundation”, defines the JPEG Trust framework and provides building blocks for more elaborate use cases. It is expected that the standard will evolve over time and be extended with additional specifications.
JPEG Trust arises from a four-year exploration of requirements for addressing mis- and dis-information in online media, followed by a 2022 Call for Proposals, conducted by international experts from industry and academia from all over the world.
The new standard is expected to be published in 2024. To stay updated on JPEG Trust, please regularly check the JPEG website for the latest information.
The JPEG AI activity progressed at this meeting with more than 60 technical contributions submitted for improvements and additions to the Verification Model (VM), which after some discussion and analysis, resulted in several adoptions for integration into the future VM3.0. These adoptions target the speed-up of the decoding process, namely the replacement of the range coder by an asymmetric numeral system, support for multi-threading or/and single instruction multiple data operations, and parallel decoding with sub-streams. The JPEG AI context module was significantly accelerated with a new network architecture along with other synthesis transform and entropy decoding network simplifications. Moreover, a lightweight model was also adopted targeting mobile devices, providing 10%-15% compression efficiency gains over VVC Intra at just 20-30 kMAC/pxl. In this context, JPEG AI will start the development and evaluation of two JPEG AI VM configurations at two different operating points: lightweight and high.
At the 99th meeting, the JPEG AI requirements were reviewed and it was concluded that most of the key requirements will be achieved by the previously anticipated timeline for DIS (scheduled for Oct. 2023) and thus version 1 of the JPEG AI standard will go as planned without changes in its timeline and with a clear focus on image reconstruction. Some core requirements, such as those addressing computer vision and image processing tasks as well as progressive decoding, will be addressed in a version 2 along with other tools that further improve requirements already addressed in version 1, such as better compression efficiency.
JPEG Pleno Learning-based Point Cloud coding
The JPEG Pleno Point Cloud activity progressed at this meeting with a major improvement to its VM providing improved performance and control over the balance between the coding of geometry and colour via a split geometry and colour coding framework. Colour attribute information is encoded using JPEG AI resulting in enhanced performance and compatibility with the ecosystem of emerging high-performance JPEG codecs. Prior to the 100th JPEG Meeting, JPEG experts will investigate possible advancements to the VM in the areas of attention models, sparse tensor convolution, and support for residual lossless coding.
The JPEG Committee has been working on an exploration for coding of images in quaternary representations particularly suitable for image archival on DNA storage. The scope of JPEG DNA is the creation of a standard for efficient coding of images that considers biochemical constraints and offers robustness to noise introduced by the different stages of the storage process that is based on DNA synthetic polymers. During the 99th JPEG meeting, a final call for proposals for JPEG DNA was issued and made public, as a first concrete step towards standardization.
The final call for proposals for JPEG DNA is complemented by a JPEG DNA Common Test Conditions document which is also made public, describing details about the dataset, operating points, anchors and performance assessment methodologies and metrics that will be used to evaluate anchors and future proposals to be submitted. A set of exploration studies has validated the procedures outlined in the final call for proposals for JPEG DNA. The deadline for submission of proposals to the Call for Proposals for JPEG DNA is 2 October 2023, with a pre-registration due by 10 July 2023. The JPEG DNA international standard is expected to be published by early 2025.
JPEG Pleno Light Field Quality Assessment
At the 99th JPEG meeting two contributions were received in response to the JPEG Pleno Final Call for Contributions (CfC) on Subjective Light Field Quality Assessment.
- Contribution 1: presents a 3-step subjective quality assessment framework, with a pre-processing step; a scoring step; and a data processing step. The contribution includes a software implementation of the quality assessment framework.
- Contribution 2: presents a multi-view light field dataset, comprising synthetic light fields. It provides RGB + ground-truth depth data, realistic and challenging blender scenes, with various textures, fine structures, rich depth, specularities, non-Lambertian areas, and difficult materials (water, patterns, etc).
The received contributions will be considered in the development of a modular framework based on a collaborative process addressing the use cases and requirements under the JPEG Pleno Quality Assessment of light fields standardization effort.
Three contributions in response to the JPEG Call for Contributions (CfC) on Subjective Image Quality Assessment were received at the 99th JPEG meeting. One contribution presented a new subjective quality assessment methodology that combines relative and absolute data. The second contribution reported a new subjective quality assessment methodology based on triplet comparison with boosting techniques. Finally, the last contribution reported a new pairwise sampling methodology.
These contributions will be considered in the development of the standard, following a collaborative process. Several core experiments were designed to assist the creation of a Working Draft (WD) for the future JPEG AIC Part 3 standard.
The JPEG committee continued with the exploration activity on Event-based Vision, called JPEG XE. Event-based Vision revolves around a new and emerging image modality created by event-based visual sensors. At this meeting, the scope was defined to be the creation and development of a standard to represent events in an efficient way allowing interoperability between sensing, storage, and processing, targeting machine vision applications. Events in the context of this standard are defined as the messages that signal the result of an observation at a precise point in time, typically triggered by a detected change in the physical world. The exploration activity is currently working on the definition of the use cases and requirements.
An Ad-hoc Group has been established. To stay informed about the activities please join the event based imaging Ad-hoc Group mailing list.
The second editions of JPEG XL Part 1 (Core coding system) and Part 2 (File format) have proceeded to the DIS stage. These second editions provide clarifications, corrections and editorial improvements that will facilitate independent implementations. Experiments are planned to prepare for a second edition of JPEG XL Part 3 (Conformance testing), including conformance testing of the independent implementations J40, jxlatte, and jxl-oxide.
The second edition of JUMBF (JPEG Universal Metadata Box Format, ISO/IEC 19566-5) is progressing to the IS publication stage; the second edition brings new capabilities and support for additional types of media.
Many Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) point to assets represented in JPEG formats or can be represented in current and emerging formats under development by the JPEG Committee. However, various trust and security concerns have been raised about NFTs and the digital assets on which they rely. To better understand user requirements for media formats, the JPEG Committee conducted an exploration on NFTs. The scope of JPEG NFT is the creation of effective specifications that support a wide range of applications relying on NFTs applied to media assets. The standard will be secure, trustworthy and eco-friendly, allowing for an interoperable ecosystem relying on NFT within a single application or across applications. As a result of the exploration, at the 99th JPEG Meeting the committee released a “Draft Call for Proposals on JPEG NFT” and associated updated “Use Cases and Requirements for JPEG NFT”. Both documents are made publicly available for review and feedback.
The JPEG committee continued its work on the JPEG XS 3rd edition. The primary goal of the 3rd edition is to deliver the same image quality as the 2nd edition, but with half of the required bandwidth. For Part 1 – Core coding tools – the Draft International Standard will proceed to ISO/IEC ballot. This is a significant step in the standardization process with all the core coding technology now final. Most notably, Part 1 adds a temporal decorrelation coding mode to further improve the coding efficiency, while keeping the low-latency and low-complexity core aspects of JPEG XS. Furthermore, Part 2 – Profiles and buffer models – and Part 3 – Transport and container formats – will proceed to Committee Draft consultation. Part 2 is important as it defines the conformance points for JPEG XS compliance. Completion of the JPEG XS 3rd edition standard is scheduled for January 2024.
“The creation of standardized tools to bring assurance of authenticity, provenance and ownership for multimedia content is the most efficient path to suppress the abusive use of fake media. JPEG Trust will be the first international standard that provides such tools.” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.
Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:
- No 100, will be in Covilhã, Portugal from 17-21 July 2023
- No 101, will be online from 30 October – 3 November 2023
A zip package containing the official JPEG logo and logos of all JPEG standards can be downloaded here.