The first months of the new calendar year, multimedia researchers traditionally are hard at work on their ACM Multimedia submissions. (This year the submission deadline is 1 April.) Questions of reproducibility, including those of data set availability and release, are at the forefront of everyone’s mind. In this edition of SIGMM Records, the editors of the “Data Sets and Benchmarks” column have teamed up with two intersecting groups, the Reproducibility Chairs and the General Chairs of ACM Multimedia 2019, to bring you a column about reproducibility in multimedia research and the connection between reproducible research and publicly available data sets. The column highlights the activities of SIGMM towards implementing ACM paper badging. ACM MMSys has pushed our community forward on reproducibility and pioneered the use of ACM badging . We are proud that in 2019 the newly established Reproducibility track will introduce badging at ACM Multimedia.
Complete information on Reproducibility at ACM Multimedia is available at: https://project.inria.fr/acmmmreproducibility/
The importance of reproducibility
Researchers intuitively understand the importance of reproducibility. Too often, however, it is explained superficially, with statements such as, “If you don’t pay attention to reproducibility, your paper will be rejected”. The essence of the matter lies deeper: reproducibility is important because of its role in making scientific progress possible.
What is this role exactly? The reason that we do research is to contribute to the totality of knowledge at the disposal of humankind. If we think of this knowledge as a building, i.e. a sort of edifice, the role of reproducibility is to provide the strength and stability that makes it possible to build continually upwards. Without reproducibility, there would simply be no way of creating new knowledge.
ACM provides a helpful characterization of reproducibility: “An experimental result is not fully established unless it can be independently reproduced” . In short, a result that is obtainable only once is not actually a result.
Reproducibility and scientific rigor are often mentioned in the same breath. Rigorous research provides systematic and sufficient evidence for its contributions. For example, in an experimental paper, the experiments must be properly designed and the conclusions of the paper must be directly supported by the experimental findings. Rigor involves careful analysis, interpretation, and reporting of the research results. Attention to reproducibility can be considered a part of rigor.
When we commit ourselves to reproducible research, we also commit ourselves to making sure that the research community has what it needs to reproduce our work. This means releasing the data that we use, and also releasing implementations of our algorithms. Devoting time and effort to reproducible research is an important way in which we support Open Science, the movement to make research resources and research results openly accessible to society.
Repeatability vs. Replicability vs. Reproducibility
We frequently use the word “reproducibility” in an informal way that includes three individual concepts, which actually have distinct formal uses: “repeatability”, “replicability” and “reproducibility”. Again, we can turn to ACM for definitions . All three concepts express the idea that research results must be invariant with respect to changes in the conditions under which they were obtained.
Specifically, “repeatability” means that the same research team can achieve the same result using the same setup and resources. “Replicability” means that that team can pass the setup and resources to a different research team, and that that team can also achieve the same result. “Reproducibility” (here, used in the formal sense) means that a different team can achieve the same result using a different setup and different resources. Note the connection to scientific rigor: obtaining the same result multiple times via a process that lacks rigor is meaningless.
When we write a research paper paying attention to reproducibility, it means that we are confident we would obtain the same results again within our own research team, that the paper includes a detailed description of how we achieved the result (and is accompanied by code or other resources), and that we are convinced that other researchers would reach the same conclusions using a comparable, but not identical, set up and resources.
Reproducibility at ACM Multimedia 2019
ACM Multimedia 2019 promotes reproducibility in two ways: First, as usual, reproducibility is one of the review criteria considered by the reviewers (https://www.acmmm.org/2019/reviewer-guidelines/). It is critical that authors describe their approach clearly and completely, and do not omit any details of their implementation or evaluation. Authors should release their data and also provide experimental results on publicly available data. Finally, increasingly, we are seeing authors who include a link to their code or other resources associated with the paper. Releasing resources should be considered a best practice.
The second way that ACM Multimedia 2019 promotes reproducibility is the new Reproducibility Track. Full information is available on the ACM Multimedia Reproducibility website . The purpose of the track is to ensure that authors receive recognition for the effort they have dedicated to making their research reproducible, and also to assign ACM badges to their papers. Next, we summarize the concept of ACM badges, then we will return to discuss the Reproducibility Track in more detail.
ACM Paper badging
Here, we provide a short summary of the information on badging available on the ACM website at . ACM introduced a system of badges in order to help push forward the processes by which papers are reviewed. The goal is to move the attention given to reproducibility to a new level, beyond the level achieved during traditional reviews. Badges seek to motivate authors to use practices leading to better replicability, with the idea that replicability will in turn lead to reproducibility.
In order to understand the badge system, it is helpful to know that ACM badges are divided into two categories. “Artifacts Evaluated” and “Results Evaluated”. ACM defines artifacts as digital objects that are created for the purpose of, or as a result of, carrying out research. Artifacts include implementation code as well as scripts used to run experiments, analyze results, or generate plots. Critically, they also include the data sets that were used in the experiment. The different “Artifacts Evaluated” badges reflect the level of care that authors put into making the artifacts available including how far do they go beyond the minimal functionality necessary and how well are the artifacts are documented.
There are two “Results Evaluated” badges. The “Results Replicated” badge, which results from a replicability review, and a “Results Reproduced” badge, which results from a full reproducibility review, in which the referees have succeeded in reproducing the results of the paper with only the descriptions of the authors, and without any of the authors’ artifacts. ACM Multimedia adopts the ACM idea that replicability leads to full reproducibility, and for this reason choses to focus in its first year on the “Results replicated” badge. Next we turn to a discussion of the ACM Multimedia 2019 Reproducibility Track and how it implements the “Results Replicated” badge.
Badging ACM MM 2019
Authors of main-conference papers appearing at ACM Multimedia 2018 or 2017 are eligible to make a submission to the Reproducibility Track of ACM Multimedia 2019. The submission has two components: An archive containing the resources needed to replicate the paper, and a short companion paper that contains a description of the experiments that were carried out in the original paper and implemented in the archive. The submissions undergo a formal reproducibility review, and submissions that pass receive a “Results Replicated” badge, which is added to the original paper in the ACM Digital Library. The companion paper appears in the proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2019 (also with a badge) and is presented at the conference as a poster.
ACM defines the badges, but the choice of which badges to award, and how to implement the review process that leads to the badge, is left to the individual conferences. The consequence is that the design and implementation of the ACM Multimedia Reproducibility Track requires a number of important decisions as well as careful implementation.
A key consideration when designing the ACM Multimedia Reproducibility Track was the work of the reproducibility reviewers. These reviewers carry out tasks that go beyond those of main-conference reviewers, since they must use the authors’ artifacts to replicate their results. The track is designed such that the reproducibility reviewers are deeply involved in the process. Because the companion paper is submitted a year after the original paper, reproducibility reviewers have plenty of time to dive into the code and work together with the authors. During this intensive process, the reviewers extend the originally submitted companion paper with a description of the review process and become authors on the final version of the companion paper.
The ACM Multimedia Reproducibility Track is expected to run similarly in years beyond 2019. The experience gained in 2019 will allow future years to tweak the process in small ways if it proves necessary, and also to expand to other ACM badges.
The visibility of badged papers is important for ACM Multimedia. Visibility incentivizes the authors who submit work to the conference to apply best practices in reproducibility. Practically, the visibility of badges also allows researchers to quickly identify work that they can build on. If a paper presenting new research results has a badge, researchers can immediately understand that this paper would be straightforward to use as a baseline, or that they can build confidently on the paper results without encountering ambiguities, technical issues, or other time-consuming frustrations.
The link between reproducibility and multimedia data sets
The link between Reproducibility and Multimedia Data Sets has been pointed out before, for example, in the theme chosen by the ACM Multimedia 2016 MMCommons workshop, “Datasets, Evaluation, and Reproducibility” . One of the goals of this workshop was to discuss how data challenges and benchmarking tasks can catalyze the reproducibility of algorithms and methods.
Researchers who dedicate time and effort to creating and publishing data sets are making a valuable contribution to research. In order to compare the effectiveness of two algorithms, all other aspects of the evaluation must be controlled, including the data set that is used. Making data sets publicly available supports the systematic comparison of algorithms that is necessary to demonstrate that new algorithms are capable of outperforming the state of the art.
Considering the definitions of “replicability” and “reproducibility” introduced above, additional observations can be made about the importance of multimedia data sets. Creating and publishing data sets supports replicability. In order to replicate a research result, the same resources as used in the original experiments, including the data set, must be available to research teams beyond the one who originally carried out the research.
Creating and publishing data sets also supports reproducibility (in the formal sense of the word defined above). In order to reproduce research results, however, it is necessary that there is more than one data set available that is suitable for carrying out evaluation of a particular approach or algorithm. Critically, the definition of reproducibility involves using different resources than were used in the original work. As the multimedia community continues to move from replication to reproduction, it is essential that a large number of data sets are created and published, in order to ensure that multiple data sets are available to assess the reproducibility of research results.
Thank you to people whose hard work is making reproducibility at ACM Multimedia happen: This includes the 2019 TPC Chairs, main-conference ACs and reviewers, as well as the Reproducibility reviewers. If you would like to volunteer to be a reproducibility committee member in this or future years, please contact the Reproducibility Chairs at MM19-Repro@sigmm.org
 Simon, Gwendal. Reproducibility in ACM MMSys Conference. Blogpost, 9 May 2017 http://peerdal.blogspot.com/2017/05/reproducibility-in-acm-mmsys-conference.html Accessed 9 March 2019.
 ACM, Artifact Review and Badging, Reviewed April 2018, https://www.acm.org/publications/policies/artifact-review-badging Accessed 9 March 2019.
 ACM MM Reproducibility: Information on Reproducibility at ACM Multimedia https://project.inria.fr/acmmmreproducibility/ Accessed 9 March 2019.
 Bart Thomee, Damian Borth, and Julia Bernd. 2016. Multimedia COMMONS Workshop 2016 (MMCommons’16): Datasets, Evaluation, and Reproducibility. In Proceedings of the 24th ACM international conference on Multimedia (MM ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1485-1486.